Effects of Garlic Extract Released from Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Primary Author: Ashley Vu
Faculty Sponsor: Susmita Bose
Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture
Category: Medical and Life Sciences
Bone is a constantly remodeling tissue comprised of osteoblast cells which form bone and osteoclast cells which remove old bone through resorption. Garlic is historically known for the prevention and treatment of diseases however knowledge is limited regarding bone health. Animal studies have shown garlic minimizes bone loss through increasing estrogen levels and reducing osteoclast bone resorption. Excessive bone loss can cause porous, brittle bones, commonly known as osteoporosis, which lead to high fracture risks. Utilizing natural alternatives to synthetic medicines can reduce physiological rejection while maintaining relief to ailments and diseases.
One of the most well-known sulfur compounds extracted from garlic is allicin. The objective is to understand the effects of allicin release on the bone remodeling process. The hypothesis is allicin will show no cytotoxic effects to osteoblast cells and reduce osteoclast resorption. Allicin was extracted from pure garlic powder and loaded onto calcium phosphate scaffolds, mimicking bone tissue composition. Cellular and scaffold surface morphology were imaged post cell culture as well histological staining of an in vivo rat distal femur model.
Results show allicin has no cytotoxic effects on osteoblast morphology and a reduction of osteoclast resorption pit formation. Allicin also shows significantly enhanced collagen formation in vivo, indicating another avenue for improved bone healing. With these results, further knowledge is gained on the ability for garlic to improve bone health in bone tissue engineering applications.