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Showcase 2019 Academic Showcase

2019 abstracts

For Academic Showcase

Physiological resistance alters the behavioral response of the two-spotted spidermite to acaricides

Primary Author: Adekunle Adesanya

Faculty Sponsor: Doug Walsh

Primary College/Unit:College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s)College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The two-spotted spidermite (TSSM) is a key pest of numerous economically important crops such as berries, corn, and alfalfa. Acaricide application is the cardinal control method for TSSM. However, most toxicological assays on TSSM have focused more on mortality-based action of acaricides despite the fact that stimulant-dependent behavior such as irritancy/repellency can interfere with acaricide efficacy. TSSM is known to rapidly develop physiological resistance to acaricides either by target site mutation or enhanced metabolic detoxification.In order to design the most effective acaricide resistance management strategy for TSSM, this study is aimed at understanding the behavioral effect of acaricides on TSSM and if the development of physiological acaricide resistance in TSSM affect its behavioral response to acaricides. We speculated that the behavioral response (repellency, irritancy, fecundity) of TSSM to an acaricide is an interplay between the dose of the acaricide and the level of resistance or susceptibility. This is because the accumulation of resistance traits might modulate sensory perception of acaricides. The irritancy and repellency of the tested acaricide varied significantly between susceptible and resistant TSSM strains in a dose dependent manner. Irritated and repelled mites (susceptible or resistant) tend to lay more eggs. Overall, this study raise a novel concern about the non-lethal effect of acaricides that affect their efficacy. The repellency and irritancy of T. urticae does not appear to be directly linked to their resistance status. Hence, the behavioral effect of an acaricide should be considered in designing mite management program.

Aspiring Teacher Leadership and Success (ATLAS) program: A student success initiative

Primary Author: Olusola Adesope

Co-Author(s): Rachel Wong

Ali Bretthauer

Nam Nguyen

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Provost

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

There are widespread national efforts directed at student success initiatives, especially for underrepresented minority students. These include the implementation of high-impact practices such as writing intensive courses, diversity/global learning and first-year seminars. At WSU, the ATLAS program provides academic engagement support to students from low-income, first generation backgrounds and students with disabilities pursuing a career in teaching. Underrepresented students in the program receive integrative advising, financial education, and support resources as well as advocacy. To assess students’ use of program services, a survey was adapted and administered to two groups of students in Fall 2018 – students new to the program and students in their second year and beyond. Statistical analyses were conducted and findings from the survey show that second year and beyond students engaged in healthy habits of mind, with a majority of students responding that the program taught them to frequently engage in proactive learning behaviors (i.e. seek solutions to problems and explain them to others, develop back-up (contingency) plans). Additionally, students responded that the advising and mentoring services from ATLAS staff were extremely helpful for providing guidance on how to cope with stress, finances and time management. Additional analyses were conducted to investigate potential differences in the pattern of participant responses to how strong they thought they have skills relevant to academic self-concept, social self-concept, pluralistic orientation and social agency, and how important they thought the skills was. Our poster will present these and other findings on how to improve ATLAS program services.

Using technology to keep track of alumni: The College of Education program

Primary Author: Tolulope Adesope

Co-Author(s): C. Brandon Chapman

Phyllis Erdman

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Considerable efforts are being made by colleges and universities around the world to keep track of their alumni. Communication of current employment of alumni is often a pride to universities. In addition, research literatures have documented that charitable giving by alumni is one of the key sources of revenue. However, many colleges and universities struggle to effectively document where their alumni work so they can be reached easily when needed. The Office of Assessment in the College of Education at Washington State University has developed an online tool with Google Maps for keeping track of their alumni. This project is aimed at developing a warehouse of alumni employment outcome to benefit the college, students (prospective and current) and our development office. It is an interactive map of where the College of Education alumni are dotted around the globe. There is also an alumni information update form where alumni can personally update their information if they move jobs or add themselves to the map if they are not yet represented. Alumni information displayed includes place of work, city, state, program(s) studied and year graduated from WSU. Within a day of launching the map, about 40 alumni personally added themselves. The map could serve as a networking platform between alumni and current students as they look for employment opportunities after graduation. Finally, the project could potentially bring in more donors to the college and university as a whole. Future analyses will report on the effects of the project on all desirable outcomes.

The widely conserved apicomplexa CLAMP gene of Babesiabovis as a novel candidate for developing subunit vaccines for the control of bovine babesiosis

Primary Author: Heba Alzan

Co-Author(s): Marta Silva

Jacob Laghery

Paul Lacy

Brian Cooke

Carlos Suarez

Faculty Sponsor: Carlos Suarez

Primary College/Unit:College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Veterinary Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Intraerythrocytic tick borne Babesia bovis parasites are responsible for bovine babesiosis, a devastating neglected tropical disease. A better understanding of the erythrocyte invasion strategy of the parasite may lead to the definition of novel vaccine candidates to improve control. In this study we analyzed the widely apicomplexa-conserved claudin-like apicomplexan microneme protein (CLAMP) in B. bovis using bioinformatics, imaging and transfection approaches. Interestingly, most CLAMP proteins expressed in apicomplexan parasites have a conserved in silico-predicted secondary and tertiary structures and are syntenic as. In silico secondary structure analysis of CLAMP suggests presence of at least three transmembrane domains supporting the position that CLAMPs are integral membrane proteins with surface exposed domains. We hypothesize that conserved domain and protein secondary structure leads to conserved function among apicomplexan CLAMP. To test this, putative pan-apicomplexan reactive antibodies were generated against well conserved hydrophilic synthetic peptides predicted to be expressed in the external surface of an in silico external loop of B. bovis and B. bigemina. Surface expression of CLAMP was confirmed by IFA in B. bovis and B. bigemina. Next we plan to determine the biological relevance of CLAMP using in vitro neutralization and transfection approaches. To this end, we designed a transfection plasmid construct to produce B. bovis parasites lacking the CLAMP gene. This new information together with demonstrating surface expression of CLAMP in B. bovis will be used to determine whether CLAMP is a virulence factor and a viable candidate for designing subunit vaccines against Babesia parasites.

Thermodynamic stability of nitrogen functionalities and defects in carbonaceous materials from first principles

Primary Author: Michael Atogiba Ayiania Apasiku

Co-Author(s): Alyssa J.R. Hensley

Manuel Garcia-Perez

Jean-Sabin McEwen

Faculty Sponsor: Manuel Garica-Perez

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Nitrogen functionalization of carbonaceous materials significantly enhances the physical and chemical properties of these materials, increasing their applicability as sorbents, heterogeneous catalysts, and electronic components. Being able to selectively induce different nitrogen functionalities via treatment conditions is key to the design and optimization of such materials. Here, we use density functional theory to study the thermodynamic stability of nitrogen functionalities in three graphene structures as a function of temperature and pressure, providing atomistic insight into the most favorable configurations that are present in doped carbonaceous materials. Phase diagrams show that nitrogen incorporation is most exergonic at graphene edges, with pyridinic groups dominating under the majority of conditions studied. For all nitrogen functionalities, lower temperatures and higher pressures result in the greater incorporation of nitrogen into the graphene structures. An analysis of the density of states shows that the creation of pyridinic nitrogen with carbon vacancies induce new electronic states just below the Fermi level localized on the nitrogen, which are likely to be highly active for the adsorption of molecular and ionic species. Overall, we have characterized both the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of nitrogen functionalities within carbonaceous materials, allowing for the directed tuning of such nitrogen groups experimentally.

Tirumankai Alvar’s five shorter works: Experiments in literature

Primary Author: LynnAte

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

After a career in the military in 8th c. CE South India, Tirumankai Alvar turned his interest to literature. While there are no written records of his life, my analysis of internal evidence in his works shows that he became knowledgeable in a variety of poetic devices, techniques, and strategies, and challenged himself by experimenting with unique approaches to meaningful artistic expression in the Tamil language. My book, in the process of publication by the École français d’Extrême-Orient, includes a study of several experimental features of his five shorter works: 1) use of numbers embedded in series in a devotional poem such that the numbers form a pyramid; 2) texts in long metric patterns showing influence of Sanskrit meter; and 3) innovative application of a classical Tamil motif (a scorned lover processing on a jagged palmyra-leaf ‘horse’ to shame the beloved into acquiescence) as a devotional approach to coerce god for grace. The book contains the original Tamil in metric feet, Tamil transliteration by word boundaries, close English translations, and detailed footnotes on early grammar, as well as a 130-page gloss of all vocabulary in the specific grammatical forms used in the texts, parts of speech, and all citations. This is the first scholarly English translation and treatment of these works to date. My chapter on prosody includes description of a feature of Middle Tamil metrics which had not been identified or described previously in Tamil or English, with fuller details of my original research found in Appendix 4.

Coupling mechanical size reduction with dry chemical pretreatment through ball milling: Residual lignocellulosic biomass based sugars with a new delignification approach

Primary Author: Mohammadali Azadfar

Co-Author(s): Michael Wolcott

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Composite Materials and Engineering Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass requires an efficient pretreatment technology to allow ready access of polysaccharides for cellulolytic enzymes during saccharification. The combined energy cost of the size reduction and pretreatment presents one of the major barriers to making lignocellulosic biofuel an economic and feasible option. Our hypothesis for coupling mechanical size reduction with dry chemical pretreatment includes a “mechanical-chemical interaction model at the histological scale” in which the comminution of lignocellulosic biomass can be accelerated in one-pot milling, producing particles in the size range of fine to ultrafine (micron) along with an enhancement of sugar recovery. Here we show how the coupling of ball milling with dry alkali metal hydroxides pretreatment is a suitable and efficient solution for producing clean cellulosic sugar (six and five carbon compounds) from available lignocellulosic residues, e.g. wheat straw, utilizing variety of chemical-analytical methods and spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, FTIR, and Pyrolysis-GC/MS. For example, wheat straw particles were produced by hammer-mill comminution of a bale of wheat straw. Using room-temperature and room-pressure ball-mill comminution of wheat straw particles, it was found that a buildup of concentration series of dry potassium hydroxide in wheat straw particles (w/w) results in reducing both particle size and overall milling time, and at a specific base concentration and time interval, significant changes in the structure due to the selective delignification of wheat straw. We present evidence that this method is able to remove sufficient amount of lignin without strongly affecting polysaccharides.

Predictive mathematical, and finite element model for depth of cut of water-jet for medical applications

Primary Author: Mahdieh Babaiasl

Co-Author(s): John P. Swensen

FanYang

Faculty Sponsor: John P. Swensen

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Water-jet technology has recently been used in medical applications such as surgery for dissection of organs, dentistry, bone cutting, and wound debridement. Measuring, and controlling depth of cut of water-jet is important for medical applications. For example, in surgical applications using water-jet, selective cutting is a must, and water-jet should cut the desired layer and should not go further, and this requirement dictates a predictive model for it. We have experimentally studied the effect of tissue stiffness, needle diameter, and waterjet speed on cut-depth. Experimental results showed that cut-depth has a direct relationship with flow rate, and an inverse relationship with elastic modulus of the tissue and needle diameter. A finite element model is developed to predict the cut-depth. In order to have a mathematical relation for control purposes, a predictive mechanics-based model is also developed for depth of cut as a function of tissue properties (toughness, and constitutive response) and waterjet-needle properties (diameter, and velocity of water-jet). The results showed that finite element model, and mathematical model give a reasonable prediction of depth of cut of water-jet in soft tissue. The developed mathematical model can work for all soft tissues given their toughnesses, and shear moduli. This work is really significant for applications such as waterjet-assisted surgery to selectively cut tissue layers in order to avoid injury, water-jet steerable needles in which a flexible needle is guided in curved paths cut by water-jet through human anatomy, and any waterjet-assisted medical application where controlling the cut-depth is important.

Alternative to suspension for marijuana use

Primary Author: CelestinaBarbosa-Leiker

Co-Author(s): Michelle Shaw

CristinaAnderson

AllisonMatthews

Primary College/Unit:College of Nursing

Associated College(s)/Unit(s)College of Nursing

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Background: In partnering with four school districts in North East Washington Educational School District 101, the goal of this pilot program evaluation was to determine the feasibility and initial efficacy of an internet-based marijuana psychoeducation program for high school students who would normally be suspended for first-time marijuana policy infractions. Methods: Each of the four school districts worked within their respective districts’ policies and procedures for suspension in the 2016-2018 academic years. Schools used an online program, Marijuana 101 by 3rd Millennium Classrooms, a self-administered 4-hour online intervention course for student marijuana violations. Results: One hundred and twenty-one students completed the marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco online education programs. Specific to the Marijuana 101 program, accuracy of knowledge-based questions increased from 48.2% pre-test to 82.6% correct post-test. Students reported the program as easy to understand (M=3.97), interesting and helpful (M=3.74), and that it would help them avoid future problems (M=3.53). More than 50% of participants went to class while under the influence and 20% drive within 5 hours of use, with an additional 44% driven by someone within 5 hours of driver’s use. Students indicated using marijuana because “it was safer than other drugs” (74% endorsement), “to have a good time” (57% endorsement) “it would make me less tense and help me unwind” (57% endorsement), and “it relaxes me” (48% endorsement). Fifty percent of participants endorsed the importance of changing their use; 18% indicated no confidence in their ability to change their use.

Culturally Responsive Indigenous Science (CRIS) project

Primary Author: Keola Birano

Co-Author(s): Landon Charlo

Francene Watson

Zoe Higheagle-Strong

Lotus Norton-Wisla

Paula Groves Price

Carolina Silva

Faculty Sponsor: Paula Groves Price

Primary College/Unit:College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s)College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Gloria Ladson-Billings, warned that focus on the “achievement gap” in education research leads to “short term solutions that are unlikely to address the long-term underlying problem” (Ladson-Billings, 2006, p. 4). Addressing the debt to Indigenous people means recognizing the impacts of past historical events such as boarding schools, laws that prohibited native languages, broken land treaties and threats to sovereignty (Ladson-Billings, 2006). Data points to the accumulation of debt that ultimately leads to too few Indigenous students graduating high school and entering postsecondary education. Addressing the achievement gap requires long-term solutions and culturally responsive approaches that engage Native students, acknowledges and values the knowledge of elders, and collaborates with Tribal communities. The Culturally Responsive Indigenous Science (CRIS) project approaches STEM learning from a students’ epistemological and cultural perspectives. By integrating western science and tribal knowledge, this innovative Indigenous STEM (ISTEM) program encourages inquiry-based community learning to increase Indigenous student engagement in science. The CRIS research team has implemented a plan to address this achievement gap. This plan includes three important steps. First, develop and implement culturally responsive ISTEM curriculum modules that integrate Indigenous and Western knowledge. Second, conduct professional development to support teachers in integrating ISTEM curriculum and technology. Third, provide supplemental hands-on enrichment programs for Native American students to engage with ISTEM projects. Ladson-Billings (2006). From the achievement gap to the education debt: Understanding achievement in U.S. schools. Educational Researcher, 35 (7): 3-12.

Ni-Mo2C: A highly active catalyst for a partial oxidation of jet fuel

Primary Author: QusayBkour

Co-Author(s): Su Ha

Faculty Sponsor: Su Ha

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Mo2C is an attractive catalyst for methane reforming because it possesses high activity and coking resistance. However, Mo2C catalysts cannot guarantee sufficient long-term stability under liquid fuel reforming conditions at a high fuel flow rate due to their phase instability. The present investigation is focused on improving the phase stability and the performance of Mo2C by addition of Ni for the partial oxidation (POX) of jet fuel. The Mo2C sample without Ni shows a performance similar to that of a blank run (in the absence of catalyst) with 70% conversion, 12% H2 yield, and 53% CO yield. The poor performance of Mo2C is due to partial phase transformation into the MoO2 phase at the high WHSV (42 h-1). For Ni-Mo2C, the catalyst exhibits excellent stability over the 24 h test period with carbon conversion of 90% and H2 and CO yields of 56 and 63%, respectively. There were no indications of bulk oxidation or surface coking. Temperature-programmed reaction and isotopic exchange experiments showed that Ni-Mo2C follows the “catalytic oxidation and re-carburization cycle.” In this cycle, molecular oxygen is activated over the Mo2C surface and the activated oxygen species react with lattice carbon from Mo2C to form both CO and carbon vacancies. Hydrocarbons are decomposed into H2 and surface carbons over the metallic Ni sites. To regenerate the Mo2C phase and sustain the catalytic cycle, the Mo2C1-x phase (i.e., non-stoichiometric Mo2C) is re-carburized by surface carbons deposited on the metallic Ni sites.

Why should we have to buy our own things back? The struggle over the Spalding-Allen collection

Primary Author: Trevor Bond

Primary College/Unit: Libraries

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Libraries

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In 1836, Henry and Eliza Spalding joined Marcus and Narcissa Whitman on a mission to bring Christianity to the Indians of the Oregon Country. In 1846, Spalding acquired Nez Perce clothing, artifacts, and horse gear which he shipped to his friend and supporter, Dr. Dudley Allen, in Ohio. In exchange for these Native American goods, Dr. Allen, a benefactor to the Presbyterian mission sent needed commodities to Spalding. After Allen’s death, his son, Dudley, donated the Collection to Oberlin College in 1893 and then the Ohio Historical Society (OHS). In 1976, curators at Nez Perce National Historic Park (NEPE) rediscovered the collection. After negotiations, OHS loaned most of the Spalding-Allen artifacts to the National Park Service in 1980 on renewable one-year loans. However, in 1993 OHS abruptly demanded the return of the collection. In negotiations with OHS, they eventually agreed to sell the collection, but only at its full appraised value of $608,100 with a six-month deadline to provide the money. The Nez Perce Tribe raised the money within six months with help from thousands of donors and purchased the collection where it is now on loan to NPS. This book explores the attempted dispossession of Nez Perce cultural heritage. The ethics of acquiring, bartering, owning, and selling Native cultural history will be explored. The origins of collections?their provenance?is critical for the future ethical curation of indigenous collections held in museums and archives. Who owns Native cultural heritage? Distant museums or the communities that created the items?

The role of trust in health communication in the Canadian Arctic

Primary Author: Amanda Boyd

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Communicating about health risks in the Arctic can be challenging. Numerous factors can hinder or promote effective communication. One of the most important components in effective communication is trust in an information source. This is particularly true when a risk is unfamiliar or complex because the public must rely on expert assessment rather than personal evaluation of the risk. A total of 112 Inuit residents from Nunavik, Canada, were interviewed to better understand the factors that influence trust in individuals or organizations. Results indicate that there are six primary factors that influence trust in an information source. These factors include: (1) whether the information source is a friend or family member; (2) past performance of the individual or organization; (3) the general disposition of the audience member (i.e. the person believes that most people are trustworthy); (4) the openness or candidness of the source; (5) value similarity (i.e. the perceived correspondence in values between the audience member and communicator); and (6) the credibility of the source. The results of this study can help determine who or what agencies should provide messages about health risks in the Arctic. It also provides insight about effective strategies for engendering trust among Arctic residents.

South Puget Sound local grain market assessment

Primary Author: Stephen Bramwell

Co-Author(s): Monte Roden

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): WSU Extension

Campus: Thurston County

Abstract:

Lack of grain handling and storage facilities, as well as transportation connections, impede farmers in southwest Washington from getting grain crops to markets. In response, farmers in the region organized a coalition to address these issues, and engaged WSU Extension in Thurston County to conduct grain buyer and grower surveys to gauge the feasibility of centralized storage, handling, and marketing. We hypothesized that grain buyers would be interested in purchasing at a premium price from regional growers, supporting the case for a regional facility. Two survey tools were developed by Thurston County Extension agriculture program, with support from the WSU Division of Governmental Studies and Services, and were completed by buyers (n=23) and growers (n=21). Purchases among those surveyed amounted to approximately 1,600 tons of grain products annually, and buyers identified prices for products ($800 to $2,000 per ton for malting barley) that were attractive to growers. Greater than 85% of buyers were willing to pay an average 17% price premium for local grain. Grain growers in the region produced approximately 2,300 acres of grain, predominantly barley, with 73% conventional, 23% organic and the balance in no-spray systems. Seventy-six percent of growers had unmet storage needs, and would increase production from 60-357% if they received what they defined as the highest reasonable prices for oats, wheat, and barley. Growers identified needed storage and handling infrastructure. The surveys demonstrated there is an opportunity to connect regional grain growers and buyers, and to invest in infrastructure to increase regional sales and production.

The representation of the ‘Fab 5’ literacy components in the Core Reading Program Bookshop: 3rd Grade

Primary Author: Christina Brando-Subis

Faculty Sponsor: Jane Kelley

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Many school districts are utilizing and requiring research-based reading programs that include explicit lesson plans for teaching literacy skills to students. There is limited research about newer reading programs like Bookshop, the topic of this study, that teach reading using small sets of children’s literature texts and whole-class materials on charts, rather than programs that use the more traditional, whole class reading textbooks. Research featuring Bookshop features quantitative methods and has not been published in peer-reviewed journals. The purpose of the following study is to add to research about Bookshop that can be included in a peer-reviewed journal with a qualitative approach. A qualitative content analysis on two versions of Bookshop (2008/2015) for third grade was conducted to critique representation of the five literacy areas identified by the National Reading Panel (2000) as necessary to teach: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. Out of 100 lessons examined, more lessons addressed fluency (88%), vocabulary (100%), and comprehension (100%) than phonemic awareness (1%) and phonics (35%), with a variety of vocabulary and comprehension skill representation. A number of children’s literature texts (56%) remained between the two program versions, and differences in organizational structure, lesson component areas, and addition of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were evident and described. Implications for teachers’ use of reading programs like Bookshop are presented, particularly time dedicated to reading instruction and reading authentic texts, two areas that were found to be lacking in the program. Future directions and needs for researching such programs are also addressed.

The manual-based Digital Memory Notebook intervention development and case illustrations

Primary Author: Katelyn Brown

Faculty Sponsor: Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

There is currently a need to identify feasible and effective interventions to help older individuals suffering from memory loss maintain functional independence and quality of life. To improve upon paper and pencil memory notebook interventions, the Digital Memory Notebook (DMN) application (app) was developed iteratively with persons with cognitive impairment. This poster details a manual-based intervention for training use of the DMN app. A series of three case studies are described to illustrate the clinical process of the DMN intervention, the key components of the intervention and participants’ perceptions of the intervention. The Reliable Change Index was applied to pre/post intervention scores that examined everyday memory lapses, daily functioning, coping self-efficacy, satisfaction with life, and quality of life with standardized measures. Following the intervention, two of three participants self-reported a clinically significant reduction in everyday memory lapses and improved everyday functioning and satisfaction with life. All three participants demonstrated clinically significant changes in their ability to cope with problems and build self-efficacy. Furthermore, all three participants scored in the normative range post-intervention on the measure of satisfaction with life. Clinical observations and participant feedback were used for refinement of the DMN intervention.

Can trees sue the government? A Renaissance perspective on law and nature

Primary Author: Todd Butler

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Dean’s Office

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Dissenting from the majority opinion in Sierra Club v. Morton (1972), Justice William Douglas advanced the novel argument that natural resources?trees, rivers, beaches?could sue at law for their own protection. One surprising guarantor of this claim was John Donne, the seventeenth-century poet and preacher, whose insistence that “no man is an island” Douglas expanded to include not only human beings but the environmental elements that surround us. My research investigates this unusual juxtaposition, articulating how historical understandings of humanity’s relationship to the natural world provide a geneology for contemporary environmental law. In particular, I argue that early modern readings of nature can enable modern observers to reimagine more capaciously the boundaries between the human and non-human, thereby redefining our understanding of both natural and legal communities. As I demonstrate, these findings have implications not only in the United States but also internationally, as native peoples in Australia, New Zealand, and India have in the past two years successfully secured new legal rights for natural features such as river systems. Together, the diversely historical, cultural, and legal experiences provide the groundwork for reimagining our relationship to the environment amidst global and local climate change.

Incremental taint analysis for Android security

Primary Author: Haipeng Cai

Co-Author(s): John Jenkins

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Most mobile apps today are running on Android. One common approach to defending Android security is taint checking, which examines apps against possible exposure or leakage of security-sensitive and/or private user data. To make its results affordable to use, taint analysis needs to be precise, reporting as few false alerts as possible. To minimize the risk of missing actual threats, the analysis needs to also produce complete results, capturing as many true security risks as possible. Unfortunately, a taint analysis that produces precise and complete results is highly expensive. We developed a novel approach to fast and precise taint checking that produces complete results, called incremental taint analysis, by exploiting the evolving nature of Android apps. Given multiple evolving versions of an app, our analysis starts with an ordinary taint analysis on the first version. For each evolved version of the app, the changes relative to the first version are computed and the affected program entities are identified through impact analysis. New taint flows due to the change impact are then synthesized with those in the first version to produce the analysis results of the evolved app. We have applied the incremental analysis to dozens of real popular apps and revealed significant cost-effectiveness improvement over conventional analyses, reducing their cost by 78.6% while not penalizing accuracy. Given the considerable number of evolving versions on large app stores, our approach provides a promising solution to app screening against security vulnerabilities.

Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of actinide tetrafluoride compounds

Primary Author: Cigdem Capan

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Tri-Cities

Abstract:

Plutonium (Pu) plays a central role in energy production, national defense, waste management, and environmental remediation. My own research interests, geared towards basic science, stem from the fact that Plutonium has a very unique place in the periodic table and is recognized as the pivotal element to study for insights on the unique electronic properties of the actinide series. The complexity of the actinide elements comes from the presence of 5f electrons in the valence shell, which display both atomic (ionic bond) and band-like (covalent bond) character. This duality is at the heart of many interesting phenomena observed in actinide compounds such as extremely slow conduction electrons with large mass renormalization, unusual magnetic ordering of quadrupolar (or higher order) moments, and superconductivity. I will report the first NMR investigation in Plutonium Tetrafluoride (PuF4). We have investigated this compound in order to shed light on the relation between electronic configuration and magnetic moment of the Pu4+ ions. We observe an unusually broad fluorine spectrum which scales with the applied magnetic field in PuF4, compared to the isostructural ZrF4 and CeF4 compounds with no f-electrons. The experimental lineshape is consistent with a dipolar type hyperfine interaction between the F-nuclei and the Pu valence electrons, but the effective moment derived from it is much larger than the moment of the 5f4 electronic configuration that was assigned to Pu based on previous bulk magnetic susceptibility data. One possible interpretation is that Pu is in a mixed valence states in this compound.

Estimation of phenotypic and additive genetic covariance functions for function-valued traits in the presence of amplitude and phase variation

Primary Author: Patrick Carter

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Biological Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Some biological traits, such as growth trajectories, vary along a continuous independent axis and are known as function-valued (FV) traits. These traits can be assessed for continuous genetic variation using a quantitative genetic approach. However, when the statistical unit is a function (or curve) both amplitude (or vertical) and phase (or horizontal) variation in the trait can arise across individuals. For example, the growth process may follow a specific time dynamic for each subject, even if the shape of the curve is similar throughout the population. This makes cross-individual comparison problematic and necessitates decoupling amplitude and phase variation prior to the analysis. In this work, we assess the impact of time warping on the estimation of phenotypic and additive genetic covariances and propose a comprehensive approach to both align the curves and account for variation in time dynamics. We apply these methods to growth trajectories in larval Tribolium castaneum. We find that temporal registration dramatically affects the estimates of phenotypic and additive genetic covariance functions and this analysis reveals interesting biological details that were obscured in the original study. In particular, utilizing temporal registration reveals otherwise undetected genetic variance late in the larval phase for both phase and amplitude, and uncovers genetic variance for slow early growers spending less time in the wandering phase and achieving a larger pupal mass and a younger pupation age. Implications for interpreting potentially interesting biological information about genetic variances in growth curves from analyses using and not using temporal registration are discussed.

Novel/sustainable synthetic approach of carbon coated dual porous silicon composite as a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

Primary Author: Younghwan Cha

Faculty Sponsor: Min-Kyu Song

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Magnesiothermic reduction of silica has been widely explored as a sustainable synthetic method of Si-based anode materials for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, incomplete reduction occurs resulting in undesirable side products; unreacted silica and overreacted magnesium silicide. This unwanted phenomenon, due to the insufficient understanding on the reduction reaction, limits the practical implementation of the technique. Herein, we report novel approach that involves two consecutive thermal treatments; (i) complete conversion of silica with excess magnesium to magnesium oxide and magnesium silicide and (ii) thermal oxidation of the magnesium silicide in carbon dioxide environment as carbon precursor, also called CO2-thermic oxidation process (CO-OP). Employing the approach, carbon coated silicon with dual sized pores is fabricated without loss of silicon and the electrochemical properties are demonstrated as one of applications. The dual porous structured Si/C composite synthesized via CO-OP with Mg and SiO2 exhibited moderate initial coulombic efficiency (86%) and stable cycling performance maintaining more than 2000 mAh/g of specific capacity at 0.2 C-rate galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling.

Route-based price discrimination in the ride-hailing industry: The case of Uber

Primary Author: Yenjae Chang

Faculty Sponsor: Jill McCluskey, Jia Yan

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Carson College of Business

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In this paper I examine how Uber, a ride-hailing company, price discriminates depending on trip origin and endpoint. The ride fare used to be a function of trip distance, duration and the level of local demand at origin, but as of May 2017, Uber has started to charge passengers traveling certain routes extra without alerting them of the pricing change. I hypothesize that such route-based pricing would set higher ride fares on the routes in which the passenger price elasticity of demand is comparatively lower. To empirically investigate this hypothesis, I rely on ride fare data collected from Uber’s API for three months (9.1.2018 – 11.30.2018), which are sampled from airports such as LAX, JFK, and SFO and hotels within 20 miles radius of each airport, as origins and endpoints. Also the trip routes are segmented by using hotel room rates and service quality ratings, assuming that passengers traveling from or to hotels with higher room rates or ratings are less-sensitive to the ride fare. The findings of this paper show that higher ride fares are associated with higher room rates and ratings of hotels where riders are traveling.

Healthy soils and WTP for biodegradable plastic in the agricultural sector

Primary Author: Kuan-Ju Chen

Co-Author(s): Thomas Marsh

Faculty Sponsor: Thomas Marsh

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Agricultural plastic pollution is a pervasive problem that damages the environment and reduces crop yield, and plastic mulches used to grow strawberries and other crops are of no exception. To mitigate the environmental harm associated with incineration or dumping of plastic mulches after the harvesting season, Biodegradable Plastic Mulches (BDM) are proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative that will degrade in the field and posts no environmental harm in the process. In our study, we run choice experiments to evaluate willingness-to-pay for BDMs on a focus group with respondents from the agricultural sector in the Pacific Northwest region conducted in November 2018. It revealed that the respondents were willing to pay a price premium on crops and healthier soils of $98 and $65 per 1,000 feet of mulch respectively, with a discount on higher portion of field-borne plastic residue of $125 per 1,000 feet of mulch. This shows that BDM can serve as a commercially feasible alternative to the conventional mulches that can also protect the environment. To this end, regulators may consider subsidizing farmers to purchase BDM to induce conservation.

Recent progress in nanoflower-based biosensors for food safety applications

Primary Author: Nan Cheng

Co-Author(s): Annie Du

Yuehe Lin

Faculty Sponsor: Yuehe Lin

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers are a class of flower-like hybrid materials self-assembled from metal ions and organic enzymes to show enhanced enzyme activity, higher surface area, more powerful load capacity, and better stability compared with free enzymes. In our group, we first prepared the HRP enzyme, antibody, and Cu3(PO4)2 into a three-in-one hybrid protein-inorganic nanoflower. The prepared antibody-enzyme-inorganic nanoflower was applied in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to serve as a novel enzyme-labeled antibody for Escherichia coli O157:H7 determination for food safety regulation. In order to further replace microplate reader to a portable manner, we further integrated pH meter, glucose meter, and smartphone in the organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers-based immunosensor as effective signal output through corresponding masterly change. Thanks to the enhanced enzyme activity of the synthesized nanoflowers, our presented results were proved to be more sensitive than most of the reported methods for quantitative determination. These studies open up a new opportunity for developing nanoflower-based biosensors for food safety applications.

Measuring vicarious nostalgia evoked by heritage tourism

Primary Author: Hengxuan Chi

Co-Author(s): Christina Chi

Faculty Sponsor: Christina Chi

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Carson College of Business

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Vicarious nostalgia represents a person’s “yearning for traditional, conservative, and community values of bygone eras” (Merchant & Ford, 2008). For this reason, it can be highly associated with heritage tourism. Previous marketing researches suggest that vicarious nostalgia significantly influences customer attitudes toward adverts, brands, and products. Despite the importance of vicarious nostalgia, there is no existing study empirically investigated it in a tourism setting. This study focuses on developing a scale to measure vicarious nostalgia evoked by heritage tourism. Through a comprehensive literature review, nostalgia is defined as a type of emotion has three dimensions: evoked positive emotion, evoked negative emotion, and past-oriented cognition and has four proposed antecedents: nostalgia proneness, self-discontinuity, alienation, and search for authenticity. Items of the three-dimensional measurement scale and other survey instruments are adopted from previous literature. By testing the scale in two countries (the US and China) and connecting vicarious nostalgia with its antecedents and outcome variables (destination image and behavior intention), the external validity and the nomological validity of the scale are tested. The study examines another tourist’s motivation factor, vicarious nostalgia, which is rarely investigated. The scale developed by the study provides a tool to the researchers to further investigate vicarious nostalgia in tourism contexts. In addition, this is the very first study that empirically investigates the relationship among vicarious nostalgia and its antecedents, therefore, provides a comprehensive investigation of this construct.

The 28-DAY Program: A refugee integration support program in Liverpool, England

Primary Author: Chien-Yi Chu

Faculty Sponsor: Ayad Rahmani

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Design and Construction

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

I propose a submission examining the role that architecture and urban design can play in tackling the refugee crisis in Europe, specifically Liverpool, England. It stems from a graduate studio challenge whose objective dealt with the question of borders across the world, between nation states but also those between pockets of cultures within the city. More than 50 percent of displaced in the world are from the Middle East, and 10 percent of those look to Europe for help. How they assimilate and turn into functioning residents, is the concern of this proposal. In the UK, refugees are given a narrow window of opportunity to be independent and create a sense of belonging, 28 days to be specific, which is good but inadequate for a meaningful relationship between refugee and host. In this proposal, those 28 days are given a new life, reprogrammed to foster mutual forms of appreciation. The proposal relies on three factors: the notion of the “dérive,” the use of augmented-reality, and scale to achieve a gradual settlement. The proposal develops 28 different daily routes, to make the city part of the solution. Streets and sidewalks become as complicit in the campaign for assimilation as the classroom and the home. What contested boundaries between host and refugee that may have existed beforehand now dissolve into a geography of distributed connections, physical and psychological. Once underway, the new itinerary need not stay limited to refugees but can be adopted by locals and tourists, to know the city.

Potential new member: Intentional fiction applied to sorority recruitment

Primary Author: Lynne Cooper

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Carson College of Business

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The function of fiction is the “recording, abstraction, and communication of complex social information in a manner that offers personal enactments of experience, rendering it more comprehensible.” [1] Works of fiction ranging from ancient (Aesop’s Fables) to modern (Lencioni’s “Five Dysfunctions of a Team”, Goldratt’s “The Goal”) use stories to convey intentional, educational messages. These simplified, concentrated abstractions immerse readers in complex systems and issues, and, like literary works and theatrical metaphors [2] offer richer ways to learn. “Potential New Member (PNM)” is both a novel and a work of intentional fiction, crafted to take the reader inside the world of sorority recruitment. Mysterious and maligned, sorority life is often sensationalized in the popular media as a cross between “Mean Girls” and “Girls Gone Wild” with little attention paid to the positive experiences and healthy relationships formed among sorority women. PNM integrates academic research, Panhellenic publications, popular media, and social media accounts into a narrative that melds the underlying formal process of sorority recruitment with the social and emotional journeys experienced by the participants. [1] Mar & Oakley (2008), “The Function of Fiction is the Abstraction and Simulation of Social Experience.” Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(3), p.173-192). [2] Kendall, Kendall & Lee (2005), “Understanding Disaster Recovery Planning through a Theatre Metaphor: Rehearsing for a Show that Might Never Open.” CAIS, Vol. 16, Article 51.

Many stories matter: Learning to become culturally responsive and socially just educators

Primary Author: Kathleen Cowin

Co-Author(s): Sarah Newcomer

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Tri-Cities

Abstract:

Teachers and principals face a multitude of challenges: an ongoing opportunity gap for ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse students, inequitable funding, increasingly segregated schools, high-stakes accountability measures, an increase of students living in poverty, and a shortage of educators prepared to address such inequities. Yet, teachers and principals are uniquely positioned to do just that. Cambron-McCabe and McCarthy (2005) note educators face “one of the most important opportunities to influence social justice” (p. 208). How can aspiring teacher and principal candidates rise to this opportunity? We address this question by sharing findings from a case study into how teacher and principal candidates learn about culturally responsive, socially just practice (CRSJP). Specifically, we investigated how the use of stories of CRSJP supported this learning. Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie (2009) asserts in her TED talk, “Many stories matter. Stories have been used to dispossess and to malign, but stories can also be used to empower, and to humanize.” Utilizing the story of “Jim Watts,” a public school principal, as an anchor text, teacher and principal candidates explored practices he cultivated, including creating a bilingual campus, enacting expeditionary-style learning, and building a strong sense of community. Teacher and principal candidates reflected, wrote, and shared their own stories. Data included course assignments, classroom observations, and our reflections, as university educators. Our findings suggest the use of stories of how others have learned to become culturally responsive and socially just is a powerful tool for helping practitioners in their journeys toward CRSJ practice.

Seed composition and amino acid profiles for quinoa grown in Washington State

Primary Author: Evan Craine

Faculty Sponsor: Kevin Murphy

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal originating from the Lake Titicaca region of Peru and Bolivia. Quinoa is celebrated for its excellent nutritional quality and potential to improve global food security, especially in marginal environments. However, minimal information is available on how genotype influences seed composition, and thus, nutritional quality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that Washington grown quinoa contains adequate amounts of essential amino acids to meet daily requirements set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Crude protein, moisture, crude fat, crude fiber, and content of 23 amino acids were determined through chemical laboratory analyses. Mean essential amino acid values for Washington grown quinoa met the daily requirements for infants and adults, except for the amount of leucine required by infants. However, we found that certain genotypes did not meet the adult and infant requirements for leucine, and infant requirements for tryptophan and lysine. One advanced breeding line in particular had the highest content for total amino acids, total essential amino acids, and 4/9 of the essential amino acids (e.g. lysine and leucine) at one location, yet had some of the lowest values at another location characterized by lower annual precipitation and soil fertility. Our results show that not all Washington grown quinoa samples meet daily requirements of essential amino acids. Additional research is needed to better understand variation in quinoa nutrition, identify varieties that do not meet daily requirements, and explore how genotype × environment interactions influence nutritional quality.

Female international student-athletes at American universities: Reasons to attend and experiences that followed

Primary Author: Tammy Crawford

Co-Author(s): Corrina McGrath

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Following decades of growth and an all-time high in 2016, international student enrollment in U.S. universities has begun to decline. Conversely, enrollment among international student-athletes has increased steadily: data published by the National Collegiate Athletic Association indicates the number of international female student-athletes who compete at the Division 1 level has increased from 1,071 in 2010 to 1,692 in 2017; an increase of 58%. The transition to student life is often stressful, and the addition of athletic commitments and relocation to a different country make the shift even more complex. The goal of this study is to examine the experiences of international female student-athletes from the time they begin to investigate American universities, through the acclimation process of life as an intercollegiate student and athlete. Semi-structured interviews were completed with participants of freshman through senior standing from 16 countries. Question themes included why students chose to attend an American university, how the decision was made, challenges faced and adjustments to life as an international student-athlete, outcomes from the experience, and recommendations for future students. Participants represented five Division 1 institutions, four athletic conferences, and nine different sports. Interviews revealed characteristics of independence and determination among international female student-athletes, a lack of information regarding the breadth of opportunities available across NCAA institutions, areas of adjustment associated with linguistic and cultural differences, and a sense of gratitude for both academic and athletic opportunities. Findings inform institutions’ programs intended to increase satisfaction, retention, and success of international students-athletes and students more broadly.

WSU Extension—Volunteer Conflict Management System

Primary Author: Missy Cummins

Co-Author(s): Dan Teuteberg

JanaFerris

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: WSU Extension

Abstract:

The use of a streamlined conflict management system has demonstrated the reduction in time necessary to effectively manage conflict. While initially developed to address conflict within the 4-H Youth Development Program, the Volunteer Conflict Management System (VCMS) has now been fully expanded and integrated for use by all WSU Extension volunteer-based programs. This system, joining research-based conflict and communication concepts with effective human resource practices, provides the volunteer development professional with a predictable, consistent response to adverse behaviors. The system components include chain of notification, decision tools using a behavior matrix, documentation forms, statement forms, letter templates, and appropriate follow up. The utilization of this system informs administration prior to the occurrence of conflict behaviors of the course of action, and preferred trajectory of volunteer appeals. Initial outcomes demonstrate an increase from 21.5% (n=17) of survey respondents feeling “very prepared” or “quite a bit prepared” in handling volunteer conflict to 86% (n=69). Updated outcome data will be available and distributed during the workshop. Participants will gain awareness and information on use of the model to adopt a clear, consistent statewide approach to dealing with conflict within Extension volunteer-based programs in their state.

Pre-training with non-expert human demonstration for deep reinforcement learning

Primary Author: Gabrielde la Cruz

Co-Author(s): Yunshu Du

Faculty Sponsor: Shira Broschat

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning that focuses on creating intelligent agents that learn from their experience. An RL agent learns by interacting with its environment through trial and error. Over time, the agent will learn what is the best action to take at any given state with the goal of maximizing the cumulative reward. Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is a recent advancement in the field that has allowed an RL agent to learn directly from raw images with the use of deep neural networks. However, learning directly from raw images adds complexity to the learning process. As a result, DRL typically suffers from slow learning speeds and often requires a prohibitively large amount of training time and data to reach reasonable performance, making it inapplicable to real-world applications such as in robotics, self-driving cars, finance, or medical applications. In our research, we are interested in how humans can provide assistance to DRL in order to speed up its learning process. In this particular work, we utilize a small set of non-expert human demonstrations to pre-train DRL’s deep neural network and we empirically evaluate our approach in six Atari games. Our results show significant improvements in learning speed, even when the provided demonstration is noisy and of low quality. This approach can also be easily adapted to other DRL algorithms.

Biodegradable plastic mulch: A summary of case studies

Primary Author: Katherine Dentzman

Co-Author(s): Jessica Goldberger

Faculty Sponsor: Jessica Goldberger

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

As part of a USDA-SCRI funded project, we conducted three case studies of biodegradable plastic mulch films at Cloudview Farm in Ephrata, WA ; Boxx Berry Farm in Lynden, WA; and Omache Farm in Moscow, ID. The films are envisioned as an alternative to polyethylene plastic films for sustainable agricultural systems. In particular, they can significantly reduce the labor cost of pulling up polyethylene mulches at the end of the season as well as reducing the amount of non-degradable plastic going to landfills. We propose presenting a poster detailing the case studies – including details of the mulches on trial, the farmers’ perceptions and reactions to the mulches, field day participants’ questions and perceptions of the mulches, and an overview of the mulches’ performance. We have discovered that biodegradable plastic mulch films are of particular interest to sustainable and organic farmers – however knowledge of these mulches and their regulation in organics is low. This poster presentation aims to address this and facilitate learning about biodegradable plastic mulch films.

Toward a new use for carbon isotope discrimination in plant breeding

Primary Author: Liam Dixon

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Arron Carter

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Drought is the greatest threat to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity worldwide. As plants mature into summer, the growing environment often turns warmer, with less precipitation and lower humidity. Extremes in any of these factors or a combination can lead to a terminal drought. A number of traits are associated with improved yield in a terminal drought environment, notably water use behavior, specifically conservative or rapid water use, deep roots, and reliance on stem reserve carbohydrates. The yield advantage of these traits, however, may depend largely on the severity of terminal drought. Conservative water use, deep roots, and stem reserves may be beneficial to a severe terminal drought environment, whereas the ability to capitalize on additional moisture by rapid water use could be advantageous to a moderate terminal drought environment. Yield loss may be mitigated by developing varieties appropriate to the terminal drought severity experienced in the target field environment. Recommendations of this kind are complicated, however. Direct selection for water use behavior, root architecture, and reliance on stem reserves is resource-intensive. Rather than screening genotypes for each of these traits individually, this work proposes that carbon isotope discrimination (CID) analysis of mature grains may serve as a relatively high-throughput approach to identify genotypes exhibiting these traits. Preliminary data in support of this idea are presented.

Prevention of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by neutrophil-derived nanovesicles

Primary Author: Xinyue Dong

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Zhenjia Wang

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Reperfusion to an ischemic brain is a therapeutic strategy to reverse the brain damage after stroke; however, it always causes the tissue injury associated with inflammatory responses, called ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Neutrophil, as one type of the white blood cells, usually infiltrates into the brain in response to the oxidative stress caused by reperfusion. Neutrophil infiltration is dependent on interactions between neutrophils and endothelial blood vessels. Inspired by this unique interaction, we have developed a novel nanovesicle drug carrier formed by neutrophil cell membrane, and a drug, Resolvin D2 (RvD2), was loaded in the nanovesicles to target the inflamed endothelium. This selective targeting strategy helps nanovesicles and RvD2 accumulate in disease area, avoiding the side effects of the drug to the whole body. To test our hypothesis, a middle cerebral artery occlusions (MCAOs) mouse model was developed. Using the in vivo real-time microscopy technique, we found the accumulation of nanovesicles in inflamed brain sites, and the decreased neutrophil infiltration into brain tissue after the treatment with RvD2 loaded-nanovesicles (RvD2-HV). Meanwhile, RvD2-HV also promoted the resolution of inflammation in brain and alleviated I/R injury on mice. This study provides a promising method using nanovesicles to inhibit the neutrophil infiltration and to prevent the secondary inflammation, and this method can be applied in other inflammation-involved diseases.

Drywall Waste Blocks: Novel masonry units made from recycled construction & demolition waste

Primary Author: David Drake

Co-Author(s): Fadil Zaky Ramadhan

Ping Fai Sze

Taiji Miyasaka

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Design and Construction

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

We have developed patent-pending mixtures and methods for producing masonry blocks using gypsum drywall waste, and conducted preliminary investigations of Drywall Waste Block (DWB) engineering properties. Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is a growing problem in the United States and internationally, and recycling C&D waste provides many environmental and economic benefits, versus landfilling. However, challenges remain for recycling certain low-value C&D waste materials, such as gypsum drywall waste, and there are few current uses for recycled drywall waste from demolition, which constitutes the majority of the drywall waste stream. Recycling drywall waste is desirable, as this waste produces noxious hydrogen sulphide gas under landfill conditions, resulting in bans on landfilled drywall waste in some localities. Drywall Waste Block production can create new markets for recycling, and scale to divert significant volumes of waste from landfills. Processing drywall waste for DWB production is simpler than other drywall recycling methods, requiring no separation of paper and core, and is agnostic to drywall type. DWB mixtures require less Portland cement binder than concrete masonry units (CMU), resulting in lower embodied energy and smaller carbon footprint. Additional benefits of DWB as a CMU alternative are discussed. Load-bearing, weather-resistant masonry units offering lighter weight and improved thermal performance relative to CMU, reducing construction labor and transportation costs. Investigation of compressive strength and water absorption of DWB specimens is described. Results are compared to specifications for CMU, and other comparable masonry blocks.

West Coast container traffic analysis

Primary Author: James Eustice

Co-Author(s): Suzette Galinato

Faculty Sponsor: Eric Jessup

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Ports serve a vital and common function in most urban regions, connecting regional manufacturing and economic activity to and from markets abroad. The primary container port of the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the Northwest Seaport Alliance, is the fourth largest container gateway in the U.S. Unlike most of the larger container ports, the majority of import container traffic into the PNW is destined to the Midwest U.S., which is primarily conducted via Class I railroads. These railroads return containers, both loaded and empty, to the PNW ports for return service to Asia. Shippers in the PNW trying to access containers for export are at a distinct disadvantage, given that the majority of containers end up outside the PNW. The PNW possesses a diverse, high-value agriculture industry, mostly within 400-500 miles from the ports, but access to containers to support agricultural exports from this region has historically been a major challenge for shippers. This research effort aims to address the challenges by identifying the specific problems, incorporating the perspectives of each participating entity, and developing an implementation strategy to mitigate these challenges. Using import and export data of the major ports along the west coast of the U.S., the current landscape over the past five years has been summarized and analyzed. Coupled with individual interviews of participating entities, phase 2 of this project is currently underway to develop a container availability model.

The first transposon knock out library for a rickettsial pathogen provides a tool for functional gene characterization

Primary Author: Deirdre Fahy

Co-Author(s): Azeza Falghoush

Kelly Brayton

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s: College of Veterinary Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Anaplasma phagocyophilum (Ap) is a zoonotic tick-transmitted pathogen that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis is limited by its obligate intracellular lifestyle and intractability to genetic manipulation. Recently, a random insertion transposon (Tn) library was generated yielding ~ 1200 mutants, resulting in the first such library for a rickettsial pathogen. We are working to assign insertion sites to the mutant clones based on PCR and sequencing. These mutants will be a valuable resource for studying Ap pathogenesis in ticks and mammals. To investigate antigenic variation during infection, we are analyzing a clone containing a Tn in the recF gene. The RecF enzyme functions in homologous recombination (the recFOR pathway) and has been implicated in the antigenic variation of the surface protein Msp2 in Ap. Msp2 is transcribed from a single expression site, however there are ~100 alleles that can serve as donors for recombination to generate novel alleles in the expression site. Quantitative PCR of cultured cells infected with the mutant has shown a lack of recF transcript, although transcript is present in wild type Ap, thus the Tn insertion appears to have inactivated this gene. Preliminary sequence analysis of msp2 alleles in the expression site indicates that wild type expresses several alleles whereas the recF mutant expresses just one allele, suggesting that recombination has not occurred in the latter. We propose to use the recF mutant (recF::TnHimar1) to examine pathogenicity of a strain incapable of antigenic variation in animal studies.

Does being left out hurt? The effects of brief social exclusion on pain processing in healthy adolescents

Primary Author: Jessica Fales

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Vancouver

Abstract:

Peer victimization is commonly experienced and is a major public health concern. Youth who are excluded by their peers are more likely to report physical health complaints (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and may be at increased risk for developing debilitating chronic pain. Determining whether social exclusion affects acute pain processing may offer clues about how peer victimization could lead to chronic pain problems. This pilot study is the first to examine whether experiencing brief social exclusion influences pain perception in youth. We hypothesized that adolescents assigned to a social exclusion condition would report worse pain outcomes, including lower pain tolerance, higher pain intensity ratings, and less efficient pain modulation. Forty adolescents (ages 14-17; 52% male) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either a brief social exclusion or inclusion/control condition (the O-Cam task; Goodacre, 2007). Following the experimental manipulation, participants completed a standardized laboratory pain procedure. Pain intensity, pain threshold, and pain modulation efficiency data were obtained. One-way ANOVA revealed no significant between-group differences on any pain outcome variable; however, there was a non-significant trend for higher thermal pain threshold (p=.13; eta-squared=.07) and more efficient pain modulation (p =.16; eta-squared=.06) in the exclusion group. These were medium effects. Though speculative, brief social pain may activate inhibitory (protective) pain responses in healthy adolescents. Prolonged activation of an inhibitory response (as might occur in the context of repeated peer victimization) may interfere with the ability to adaptively respond to pain threats over time. Alternative interpretations and study limitations will be discussed.

Preceptor training to enhance the experience of preceptors of nurse practitioner (NP) students: A quality improvement project

Primary Author: Sarah Fincham

Co-Author(s): Todd Smith

Primary College/Unit: College of Nursing

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Nursing

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Goals: The goals of this project are: Provide background and raise awareness of current issues surrounding precepting: 1) The importance of preceptors to the NP profession, 2) The challenges and rewards of precepting, 3) How to improve recruitment and retention of preceptors ?Introduce tools and strategies to help make precepting more efficient and enjoyable: 1) Orienting your student, 2) RIME, 3) One Minute Preceptor (OMP), 4) How to give feedback, 5) Other pearls for preceptors Background: This evidence-based preceptor training program was developed and implemented to address a need identified in a survey of preceptors of WSU nurse practitioner students. Nurse practitioner students must complete about 600 hours of clinical training. This training is provided by healthcare providers working in the community who volunteer their time to precept nurse practitioner students. There is currently a shortage of NP preceptors. Methods: Surveys were administered to WSU NP preceptors and NP students to gather information of the needs and perceptions of preceptors and students. Preceptors expressed a desire for formal and/or informal preceptor training. A literature review was done to learn about best practices in preceptor training. A training program was developed and has been delivered to healthcare providers at 7 local clinics. Results: Attendees of the trainings have indicated by survey that they have learned valuable new information about precepting by attending the training. Conclusions: Formal preceptor training provides valuable information which may improve preceptor’s skills, confidence, and may encourage recruitment and retention of preceptors for WSU NP students.

Biological effects of night shift work on total sleep time

Primary Author: Myles Finlay

Co-Author(s): Shobhan Gaddameedhi

Hans Van Dongen

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Sleep and Performance Research Center

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Introduction: Night shift work is associated with 1-2 hours of daily sleep loss, which has been attributed to the wake-promoting action of the biological clock interfering with daytime sleep, as well as social factors restricting sleep opportunity. In this laboratory study of simulated day and night work, we investigated sleep duration in those sleeping during the day versus those sleeping at night. Methods: Fourteen healthy adults (ages 22-34, 4 women) participated in a 7-day/6-night in-laboratory experiment. All subjects first had an 8-hour nighttime sleep opportunity (22:00-06:00). Subjects were then assigned to a simulated day shift (DS) condition (n=7) or a simulated night shift (NS) condition (n=7). The DS condition had three more nights with 8-hour nighttime sleep opportunities (22:00-06:00). The NS condition had a 4-hour transition nap (14:00-18:00), then three days with 8-hour daytime sleep opportunities (10:00-18:00). In both conditions, the experiment continued with a 24-hour period of sleep deprivation. Subjects in the DS condition then had a 4-hour transition nap (06:00-10:00), and all subjects ended the experiment with a 12-hour nighttime sleep period (18:00-06:00). Results and Discussion: All sleep periods were recorded polysomnographically. Subjects in the NS condition exhibited on average 0.5 ± 0.4 hours of sleep per day less than subjects in the DS conditions (t12=2.27, p=0.044). In this controlled laboratory study, that difference is attributable specifically to the biological clock. By implication, the much larger amount of sleep loss observed in real-world NS settings must thus be caused by other, external factors restricting sleep opportunity.

Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) populations lack differential gene expression between sex and geographic location in ear tissue

Primary Author: Alexandra Fraik

Co-Author(s): Andrew Storfer

Corey Quackenbush

Mark Margres

Menan Jones

Rodrigo Hamede

Faculty Sponsor: Joanna Kelley

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Understanding how organisms respond to dynamic, changing environments is essential for characterizing populations’ adaptive potential. Exploring patterns of differential gene expression among wild populations sampled across their geographic landscape is an important step in disentangling how organisms respond to their complex environments. Transcriptomic studies have successfully elucidated the genomic basis of adaptive phenotypes among populations across a variety of taxa experiencing divergent environmental conditions. However, few of these studies have identified transcriptomic signatures to multivariate, environmental stimuli among populations in their natural environments. In this study we sought to identify environmentally-driven patterns of gene expression in a charismatic megafauna of long-term conservation interest- the Tasmanian devil. We performed RNA-sequencing on ear biopsies sampled from male and female adult devils from three focal populations across their geographic range. If there is significant heterogeneity in the environment that devils occupy, then we would expect to find differential expression reflecting plastic adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental variation. In addition, we tested for sex-specific patterns of gene expression within and among our sampled populations. We found no significant differential expression or co-expression between or within sampled populations. We identified one gene, FRMD7, which exhibited shared sex-specific patterns of expression among all sampled populations. Our study demonstrated the importance of tissue selection and number of sampled individuals in disentangling the nuances of transcriptomics in wild populations. To properly identify putative cause-and-effect relationships between multivariate environments and gene expression patterns, more resources need to be invested in pilot studies to develop more precise sampling schemes.

A case example of applying non-inferiority to long range and ultra long range flights

Primary Author: Natasha Gage

Co-Author(s): Amanda Lamp

Rhiannon Soriano Smith

Maxwell Cook

Ian Rasmussen

Gregory Belenky

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Non-inferiority is a mean and confidence interval-based method that is commonly used in clinical studies. Compared to a t-test, it is a superior method of statistical analysis for superiority and equivalence testing because a non-significant t-test does not equate to equivalence. In contrast, non-inferiority demonstrates superiority, equivalence and non-inferiority through clear, graphical displays without further calculations. In our aviation-specific example, non-inferiority uses pre-set delta values (maximum difference allowed before non-equivalence) set with consultation from the Federal Aviation Administration. In this example, non-inferiority testing was used to compare a Long Range B787 Safety Standard Operation (SSO) flight from Los Angeles to Shanghai (LAX-PVG) to an Ultra-Long Range B787 Alternative Method of Compliance (AMOC) flight from Los Angeles to Melbourne (LAX-MEL). The aim was to see if the AMOC flight was non-inferior (as safe as or safer than) to the SSO flight. Data was collected from pilots flying both trips. Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) measured were: total inflight sleep, cognitive performance measured by psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), self-reported fatigue (Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale), and self-reported sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale). PVT and self-reported fatigue and sleepiness were measured at top of descent. Non-inferiority testing showed that for most SPIs analyzed the AMOC flight was non-inferior to the SSO flight, demonstrating the AMOC is as safe as or safer than the SSO. This highlights graphically how non-inferiority can be broadly applied to operational research.

A methodology to prioritize infrastructure transportation investments for the U.S. export supply chain

Primary Author: Suzette Galinato

Co-Author(s): Eric Jessup

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Access to export markets and its sustainability depend upon an efficient, multi-modal transportation system. There is limited funding available for needed transportation infrastructure investments. The evaluation and prioritization of future infrastructure investments are required in order to maximize their benefit to many stakeholder constituents. The goal of this research project was to develop a methodology for how transportation infrastructure projects can be prioritized for specific agricultural export supply chains (wheat, soybean, tree nuts and broiler) that span multiple geographic boundaries, jurisdictions and political landscapes, and given funding constraints. This methodology included a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the economic impacts of selected projects for each supply chain and rank them, as proof of concept. The two types of economic impacts are: regional economic impacts from construction activities (i.e., employment, household welfare, and economic output); and shipper impacts such as, improved access, increased capacity, number of shippers impacted, increased modal competition, and enhanced resiliency. The ranking of project/s will depend on the criteria that are most important for the transportation planners, and the weighting assigned to each. Workshops have been conducted across the country, representing the four export supply chains, to engage discussion with stakeholders and local transportation officials about the usefulness of the methodology. Relevant feedbacks have been gathered to improve the modeling activity especially in future endeavors, such as environmental impacts, safety impacts, traffic simulation and congestion impacts, and economic impacts of shipper savings.

Allosteric modulation of GABAA receptor by farnesol: An in silico modeling and simulation study

Primary Author: Jeevan GC

Co-Author(s): Christopher Szlenk

K. Michael Gibson

Jean-Baptiste Roullet

Senthil Natesan

Faculty Sponsor: Senthil Natesan

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels that can be opened by endogenous neurotransmitter GABA and allosterically modulated by several antiepileptic drugs. Our electrophysiology (patch-clamp) experiments performed on HEK cells expressing human alpha1beta3gamma2 GABAARs demonstrated positive allosteric modulation (PAM) of the receptors by farnesol, an endogenous isoprenol derived from cholesterol synthesis precursor, farnesyl pyrophosphate. Additional studies further showed that farnesol attenuated seizures in vivo using mouse models of GABAAR-dependent seizures. To further investigate farnesol’s PAM mechanism, we first built a computerized model of the human alpha1beta3gamma2 GABAA receptor where two GABA molecules were sequentially docked to the extracellular orthosteric sites at the beta+alpha- interfaces. We then built a second model in which farnesol was docked at the transmembrane neurosteroid binding site, taking into consideration the role of membrane lipids in facilitating ligand binding to this binding site. Last, we built a third model with several farnesol molecules randomly placed in the membrane bulk, and subjected all three models to 1-µs long all-atom MD simulations each. The data showed significant channel opening in the presence of farnesol when bound to neurosteroid binding site, thus explaining the in vitro electrophysiological data. The mechanism of channel activation by farnesol was further characterized examining several structural and dynamic variables such as global twisting of the channel, configuration of the ion pore, and the electrostatic potential. This structural and dynamic atomistic model for the PAM of GABAARs by farnesol may be useful in structure-based design of therapeutics to treat diseases involving GABAARs dysfunction.

Genetic regulation of seasonal changes in adipose function of brown bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

Primary Author: Alexia Gee

Co-Author(s): Joanna Kelley

Heiko Jansen

Michael Saxton

Brandon Hutzenbiler

Faculty Sponsor: Joanna Kelley

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Veterinary Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

To survive harsh winter months, many animals experience seasonal changes in physiology. Hibernators, such as brown bears, represent an extreme example of the physiological changes necessary to survive the winter. Annual cycles for brown bears have three phases: active (summer), hyperphagia (fall), and hibernation (winter). During the hibernation phase, adipose is a major source of metabolic energy that helps them survive winter when food is not available. Previous research using RNA-sequencing identified that adipose tissue was the most seasonally dynamic tissue in brown bears. It has also been shown that glucose uptake of cells from different phases were affected when they are treated with serum from the opposite phase. Yet, the genetic regulation of seasonal changes in adipose tissue is not well understood. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of serum treatments on gene expression to investigate transcriptional changes possibly responsible for the seasonal cycles that occur at the cellular level. To achieve this goal, we cultured cells from the active and hibernation seasons. Cells from either active or hibernating bears were then exposed to serum from the matching or opposite season to study global transcriptional changes. RNA-sequencing using Illumina was conducted on samples isolated from serum treated cell cultures. We are currently analyzing expression levels obtained from our samples. Our next step is to identify the molecular pathways responsible for differences in gene expression of cells between seasons and those treated with the serum from opposite season.

2-n-hexyl LKE-P rescues sleep & mobility abnormalities in C9orf72 glycine-arginine drosophila model of ALS/FTD

Primary Author: Jason Gerstner

Co-Author(s): Travis Denton

Dunxin Shen

Haylee Hamilton

Shelby Bailess

Jake Leinas

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases and may be a clinical factor in disease etiology. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of brain and spinal cord motor neurons, leading to loss of movement, and is fatal with no known cure. ALS patients also have various types of non-motor symptoms, including sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness. The relationship between sleep disturbances and neurodegeneration/disease progression in ALS is not well understood, but may serve as an important biomarker for treatment intervention. Recent studies suggest the C9orf72 gene is the strongest genetic risk factor associated with ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). Here we hypothesized that a fruit fly C9orf72 ALS/FTD model with expanded PolyGR36 dipeptide repeats would exhibit sleep disturbance, and if so, we wanted to determine whether changes in sleep behavior could be used as a biomarker for drug screening. In support of our hypothesis, we observed decreased locomotor activity and increased sleep time in C9orf72 ALS/FTD flies compared to control flies. Lanthionine ketimine ethyl ester (LKE) is a natural sulfur amino acid metabolite thought be neuroprotective by stimulating autophagy pathways in neurodegenerative animal models. We next tested the LKE derivative, 2-n-hexyl-LKE-P, for effects on C9orf72 ALS/FTD fly sleep abnormalities. 2-n-hexyl-LKE-P treatment rescued the locomotor and sleep abnormalities in ALS flies back to normal control flies. Future studies examining 2-n-hexyl-LKE-P effects on neurodegeneration in other ALS/FTD animal models will be important to determine its therapeutic potential in the treatment of ALS/FTD.

The right to be believed: Comparative iconography of Judge Brett Kavanaugh and Christine Blasey Ford

Primary Author: Stephanie Gibbons

Faculty Sponsor: Bimbisar Irom

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Principle Topic: The following research is in response to the media coverage that occurred prior to, during and after the Ford/Kavanaugh sexual allegation hearings in September of 2018. Ubiquitous in the coverage were images of Dr. Ford taking the oath. As a response, TIME magazine produced a weekly cover of Ford’s oath taking image in typography. Further, social media users developed their own depictions of Ford’s oath images in efforts to express support. Method: To explore this, an iconographic approach was used to explore the historical background of taking the oath. Iconography traces back images in history to show how it becomes a part of cultural identity. Originating in religious and legal art, taking an oath elicits an association with truth, honesty, and unity. This paper illuminates how Ford’s oath taking image connected her identity to its iconographic meaning. Research Question: To what extent did Christine Blasey Ford’s oath taking image resonate with media consumers, and what are the implications of that impression? Results and Implications: TIME magazine had an artist construct the oath image with words Ford spoke in her testimony. This image went viral on social media platforms with users sharing the image with hashtags such as #WhyIDidntReport and #BelieveWomen. Additionally, consumers created their own renditions of the image and shared them on social media. The implications of this research illuminate the power that images can have with impacting media creators and consumers. Digital media allows anyone to participate in what is now called visual activism.

Rewarding effects of cannabis extracts in rats using a vapor self-administration model

Primary Author: Nick Glodosky

Co-Author(s): Tim Freels

Carrie Cuttler

Ryan McLaughlin

Faculty Sponsor: Ryan McLaughlin

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Understanding the diverse effects of cannabis is becomingly increasingly important, yet current preclinical models have limited translational value. To address this, we have developed a novel vapor inhalation model that uses ‘e-cigarette’ technology to deliver discrete puffs of vaporized cannabis to rodents in a response-contingent manner. Preliminary data from our laboratory support the feasibility of this approach, however, the motivational properties of cannabis vapor remain unknown. In the current study, we trained male rats to respond for discrete puffs of vaporized cannabis extracts containing high concentrations of ?9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD), or a vehicle vapor containing no cannabis. Rates of responding between groups were compared as the number of responses required to obtain a puff of vapor was gradually increased across sessions. On the final day of training, rats were tested using a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement whereby the number of responses required to receive a puff of vapor was systematically increased during the test session. Results indicate that rats receiving cannabis extract high in THC made more responses than rats receiving vehicle vapor, although discrimination between active and inactive response options was better in rats receiving CBD-rich vapor. During the PR test, rats receiving THC-rich vapor made significantly more active responses and had higher break points than rats receiving vehicle vapor. These data further support the feasibility of the cannabis vapor self-administration approach and suggest that this model could be used to assess rewarding properties of cannabis and its neurobiological mechanisms of action.

Adsorption of phosphate in aqueous solution using nitrogen doped char produced from anaerobically digested fiber

Primary Author: Sohrab Haghighi Mood

Co-Author(s): Michael Ayiania

Yaime Jefferson Milan

Manuel Garcia-Perez

Faculty Sponsor: Manuel Garcia-Perez

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Biological System Engineering

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for growth of organisms. However, excessive phosphorous in natural waters causes eutrophication and impair the quality of water. Moreover, phosphorous natural reserves are expected to be exhausted in near future. It is important to develop technologies to remove and recover phosphate from waste streams. This study explored the potential application of an engineered char produced from Anaerobically digested fiber to evaluate adsorption of phosphate from aqueous solution. The two series of engineered chars including Nitrogen doped (ND) and CO2 activated (CA) were produced via slow pyrolysis between 350 and 750°C. Proximate analysis, Elemental analysis, Gas physisorption, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning electron microscope techniques were used to characterize properties of chars. Nitrogen doping was successfully employed to improve the phosphate adsorption capacity. The surface area of char increased after nitrogen doping through ammonization, and the resulting Nitrogen doped char showed better sorption ability to phosphate compared to CA char. As pyrolysis temperature increased the sorption capacity varied from 6.1 to 110 mg g-1 for ND char and 3.3 to 33.2 mg g-1 for CA char. A correlation can be found between adsorption capacity with the Nitrogen content on char surface. XPS and Elemental analysis confirm the ammonia treatment increased Nitrogen content on surface and bulk of char respectively. The adsorption behaviors of Phosphate on 2 series of chars comply with the Langmuir- Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson adsorption models indicating the char adsorption of phosphate is governed by multiple mechanisms.

Microporous gold/silica core-shell nanoparticle for benzyl alcohol oxidation

Primary Author: Ellis Hammond-Pereira

Faculty Sponsor: Steven R. Saunders

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Chemical Engineering

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Catalytic oxidation is an important step in many pharmaceutical and industrial processes. These bulk processes typically use strong oxidizing agents to increase output. With the recent push towards using greener but less reactive oxygen as an oxidizer, amplifying catalyst reactivity and selectivity has become only more important. To this end benzyl alcohol oxidationon gold is used as a model reaction for catalyst design. The reaction contains several potential products to account for when maximizing selectivity, and generally shows low activity on an unmodified gold surface. A porous silica-encased gold nanoparticle catalyst was synthesized and used to catalyze benzyl alcohol oxidation. The addition of a weak base (a common additive to boost reactivity at the cost of selectivity) increased benzyl alcohol conversion, but selectivity towards favored product benzaldehyde remained near 100%. The average silica pore diameter was found to be around 16 Å, significantly below the hydrodynamic radius of the larger undesired products. It is hypothesized that the unusually low pore diameter acts as a physical inhibitor, aiding selectivity by preventing the formation of large products.

Ripple Effects Mapping the perceptions of getting a water and sanitation system

Primary Author: Debra Hansen

Co-Author(s): Rebecca Sero

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): WSU Extension

Campus: WSU Extension

Abstract:

In December 2018, Washington State University Extension faculty conducted a Ripple Effects Mapping event with 15 residents in a rural Alaskan village. Ripple Effects Mapping (REM) is a participatory evaluation tool that uses an appreciative inquiry lens to gather stories and impact from a group of participants. North of the Arctic Circle, with a population around 400, the village recently received piped water. As a result, the U.S. Arctic Research Commission and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assembled villagers who could speak about how life is different now that water and sanitation service is available. The group of villagers were asked guiding questions related to how the community has changed, or health been affected, since receiving piped water. The participants’ stories initiated the mapping process, while the facilitator diagrammed their outcomes on large piece of butcher paper; retrospectively and visually mapping the chain of effects resulting from the project. Following the REM process, the WSU team digitized the paper map, analyzed the data and conducted a thematic coding process. From this activity, four primary themes were identified. First, it appears as if those within the village experienced Personal Benefits following the water and sewer system installation. Not all these benefits were positive, as several Negative Effects were discussed. Those attending the mapping also highlighted Community Benefits as a result of the village receiving water service. Finally, the villagers discussed several aspects that highlighted the Significance of the Process of obtaining water and sewer service.

A high lignin content removable and glycol-assisted repairable coating based on dynamic covalent bonds

Primary Author: Cheng Hao

Faculty Sponsor: Jinwen Zhang

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Composite Materials and Engineering Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Conventional thermoset coating cannot be easily repaired and removed due to their highly crosslinked structure. The investigation of repairable or removable coating has been receiving extensive attentions, but few reported coatings possess both features. In this work, a repairable and removable coating is developed through the curing of a modified Kraft lignin (L-COOH) with poly (ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-epoxy) in the presence of zinc catalyst. The L-COOH is prepared by functionalization of Kraft lignin with carboxylic acid groups. The cured material has a high lignin content (> 47 wt%). At elevated temperatures (> 140 °C), dynamic transesterification in the cured network is activated, which results in fast stress relaxation and imparts excellent reparability. When the vitrimer system is used as coating for tin plate, it provides adequate hardness and adhesive property. In addition, the lignin-PEG coating can be easily removed from the tin plate using a mild 0.01-0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution due to the unique swelling ability of the coating in alkaline aqueous solution. With the assistance of ethylene glycol, this coating can achieve stress-free reparability in 15 min. This work demonstrates the first lignin-based repairable and removable epoxy coating based on vitrimer chemistry.

The identification and characterization of the novel sperm gene, family with sequence similarity 205 member C (Fam205c), in the testis

Primary Author: Chad Heflick

Co-Author(s): Ted Chauvin

Ken Roberts

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Thed Chauvin, PH.D.; Dr. Ken Roberts PH.D.

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Fertilization of an egg requires sperm capable of progressive motility, and with the ability to undergo an induced acrosome reaction upon contact with the egg. Multiple proteins or protein isoforms expressed specifically in the male germ cell have been described and shown to be necessary for normal sperm function. Previously, our lab performed a large proteomic project with sperm isolated from the mouse cauda epididymis. A small number of undescribed, sperm-specific proteins were discovered among the 2850 proteins identified in these cells. One such protein was Family with sequence similarity 205, member C (Fam205c), which is novel and unannotated, and appears to be highly enriched in sperm. We characterized the mRNA expression level of Fam205c, finding that it is highly expressed in the testis compared to other tissues. Furthermore, we performed developmental expression analysis on the gene, which showed that expression of Fam205c begins around day 21. This onset of expressions suggests expression in germ cells, as they begin to proliferate at this time. In addition to these expression studies, we transfected a plasmid containing the full sequence of Fam205c that was linked to recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) into heterologous Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The GFP expression appears to be nuclear in nature, with GFP expression at the nuclear membrane. All of this data warrants further studies to investigate which specific cells express the Fam205c protein, and to localize the protein in testicular germ cells.

Using fluorescent dyes for the generation of switchable catalysts

Primary Author: Zachariah Heiden

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The World Health Organization estimates that the production of pharmaceuticals is a $300 billion industry, with an estimated increase of $100 billion over the next three years as new pharmaceutical products become available. With the advent of new pharmaceutical products and the desired synthesis of more complex products, an emphasis has been placed on the development of molecular catalysts that are capable of promoting selective chemical transformations. Increased restrictions on selective chemical transformations used in the generation of pharmaceutical products have emphasized that there is a critical need for the design of new catalysts capable of tunable reactivity for the promotion of chemical reactions from a mixture of different building blocks. We hypothesized that the incorporation of a fluorescent dye molecule into a catalyst scaffold would result in catalyst molecules that exhibit unique functionalities and the ability to switch “on/off” their catalytic behavior when exposed to external stimuli. This presentation will describe the synthesis and reactivity of fluorescent dye containing molecular scaffolds, in addition to molecular catalysts. The presentation will also emphasize the results describing the ability to alter the catalytic activity of fluorescent dye containing molecular catalysts upon the addition of an electron or when illuminated. The generation of a molecular catalyst that is capable of exhibiting switchable catalytic activity when exposed to external stimuli will result in the reduction of energy requirements of chemical processes and lead to an increase the safety of pharmaceutical products.

Master Gardener school gardening programs: Individualizing programs to meet the needs of local schools and volunteers

Primary Author: Mark Heitstuman

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: WSU Asotin County Extension

Abstract:

School Gardening programs contribute to the health and social well-being of youth (https://www.slowfoodusa.org/). WSU Asotin/Garfield County Master Gardeners have partnered with local elementary schools to deliver school gardening programs to 3rd and 4th grade classrooms. The school gardening program has expanded to currently teach over 130 elementary youth for an hour each week from October through May. Overall goals of each program have been to teach youth how to grow their own vegetables and fruits; and to encourage youth to make healthy eating choices. An additional focus has been to utilize the expertise of Master Gardeners to develop lesson plans that supplement science lessons being taught in individual classrooms. A lesson learned has been that a one-size-fits-all model doesn’t necessary meet the needs of all students and classrooms. Three unique school gardening programs that have been developed based upon school needs and the life experiences of the Master Gardeners teaching the curriculum. School one utilizes a shared leadership model with a 5 to 1 MG to student ratio to study plant life cycles; and provide taste-testing during weekly lessons. A second school utilizes a single Master Gardener serving as the coordinator to deliver hands-on lessons to 50 low-income students using raised beds and a school greenhouse. The final model uses both Master Gardeners and community volunteers to grow cool-season crops in a small rural school district. Evaluations indicate that all three models increase student’s knowledge of growing vegetables; as well as their likelihood to make healthy food choices.

Age as a potential moderator in the relation between executive dysfunction and ADHD symptom severity

Primary Author: Robyn Herbert

Co-Author(s): Tammy D. Barry

Faculty Sponsor: Tammy D. Barry

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent lifelong disorder negatively impacting school, work, and home functioning (e.g., Harpin, 2005; Mikami et al., 2010). These impairments likely stem, in part, from executive functioning deficits (Wilcutt et al., 2005), which may vary by age. The goal of the current study was to examine ADHD symptom severity as it changes relative to age, executive dysfunction’s relation to ADHD symptom severity, and age as a moderator of that relation. Participants were 146 parents from a community sample (44 parents of children ages 9 to 12 and 102 parents of young adults ages 18 to 22 years). Parents completed ratings of their child’s current ADHD symptomatology and executive dysfunction via parent-informant measures routinely used in evidence-based assessment of ADHD. Results demonstrated ADHD symptom severity differed between the two age groups, with the child group demonstrating more severe ADHD symptoms, F(1, 144) = 10.32, p = .002. Executive dysfunction was significantly related to ADHD symptom severity, r = .78, p < .001. Although the overall relation between executive dysfunction and ADHD symptom severity was not moderated by age group, F? (1, 142) = 0.95, p = .33, exploratory analyses demonstrated that the relation between certain domains of executive function and ADHD symptom severity was moderated by age. Specifically, difficulties with set shifting, emotional control, and initiating predicted more severe ADHD symptoms overall, and this relation was exacerbated in the young adult group. These findings have potential implications for school and home-based interventions for children and adults.

Health in action: A culture-centered approach to discourses and identity with type 1 diabetics

Primary Author: Joseph Hewa

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

With a chronic condition impacting every facet of life, type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), generally diagnosed at a young age, face many distinct challenges in their daily lives. In addition to the health challenges inherent in living with the condition, social stigma can also impact identity formation and health behaviors in T1Ds. Working with T1Ds to understand how they make sense of health and their identity, especially in relation to broader discourses about diabetes, opens a space for creating new possibilities to exercise agency in their lives and health. In partnership with Pullman Regional Hospital, this study utilized the Culture-Centered Approach, which engages community members in dialogue and explores the relationship of culture, structure, and agency to determine ways of creating knowledge and practices that support diabetics’ pursuit of health. In-depth interviews and follow-up focus groups were conducted with 21 participants who are either T1Ds, are the parent of a T1D, or care for diabetics as healthcare professionals. Results suggest that T1Ds and those who care for them live with a series of dialectics, such as wanting others to understand the challenge of living with diabetes and yet not wanting others to think of them as limited by the condition. This and other dialectics are explored in this study. Participants not only shared through interviews and focus groups, but also gave input on community programs, including a mentoring program for youth, peer support programs for college students, and another for parents of T1Ds, which are being developed with their participation.

A review of longitudinal experiments in information systems research

Primary Author: Xuemei Huang

Faculty Sponsor: Babu John Mariadoss

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Carson College of Business

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Longitudinal experiments, as a combination of both longitudinal studies and experimental studies, build on the strengths of the two methods, providing researchers with opportunities to investigate a wide range of research topics and to study issues of dynamic causality between variables. Despite the rich data collection and analysis opportunities offered by longitudinal experiments, their use in the Information Systems (IS) field is still infrequent. However, research published in top Information Systems journals using longitudinal experiments has increased at a relatively high rate, after a lull until 2009. In order to understand and explain the use and growth of the use of longitudinal experiments in Information Systems research, this review examines complete volumes that were published in 8 leading journals from 1990 to date. We first investigate the reasons for the low usage of longitudinal experiments in Information Systems research through qualitative interviews. Preliminary research suggests that time and cost concerns, and promotion-and-tenure pressures are the primary reasons for this trend. After a brief review of the use of longitudinal experiments in other disciplines, such as psychology and management, we state guidelines for conducting longitudinal experiments in Information Systems research. Finally, we discuss how longitudinal experiments have been used in Information Systems research, provide descriptive data of the use of longitudinal experiments Information Systems research, and offer directions for future research.

Effects of acute total sleep deprivation on sustained attention and response inhibition

Primary Author: Amanda Hudson

Co-Author(s): Kimberly Honn

DevonHansen

John Hinson

Paul Whitney

Hans Van Dongen

Faculty Sponsor: Kimberly Honn

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Many job- or safety-critical tasks, e.g., in law enforcement settings, require sustained attention, monitoring whether or not a response is required, and response or inhibition of a response as appropriate. Performance on such tasks may be critically impaired when people are sleep-deprived, but the cognitive processes affected are still being debated. The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), which requires speeded responses to stimuli at random inter-trial intervals, provides a platform for measuring sustained attention that is sensitive to total sleep deprivation (TSD). We expanded the PVT to also measure response inhibition by including both normal response stimuli (green bullseye) and inhibition stimuli (red bullseye), and implemented this “stop-signal PVT” in a TSD study. Thirteen adults (ages 21-39; 7 females) completed a 4-day/3-night laboratory study with a baseline sleep opportunity, 39 hours of acute TSD period, and recovery sleep. The stop-signal PVT was administered at 17:30 during baseline and after 34 hours of TSD. Participants were instructed to respond as quickly as possible to response stimuli while withholding responses to inhibition stimuli. Response times for accurate traditional stimuli were significantly slower during TSD compared to baseline (p=0.006), indicating detriments in sustained attention as expected. However, accuracy for inhibition trials was not significantly worse during TSD (p=0.93), suggesting that inhibitory control was maintained while sleep deprived. Whether this means that inhibition is resilient to TSD or that subjects were able to maintain response accuracy by slowing down, despite the sustained attention impairment, remains to be determined. This research was supported by Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

Saving Lady Marina

Primary Author: Amanda Hussein

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Languages, Cultures, and Race

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analize the rewriting of the story of “Malinche” in Yo, Maldita India by Jerónimo López Mozo using the theory of historiographic metafiction by Linda Hutcheon. For centuries, “Malinche” has been the target of a collective disregard. She is “the evil one”, the traitor, the cause of destruction and carrys the blame for the fall of indigenous peoples to European destruction and colonization. However, Jerónimo López Mozo wrote a play from the perspective of Bernal de Castillo de Díaz (the Spanish chronologist of Hernan Cortes) using “Malinche” as his conscience. “Malinche” asks Bernal the same ítem that she asks of all who read her story: “? do me justice in what you write about me” (López-Mozo 30). With this questioning, we have to ask ourselves: what is the justice she requests? And why does she need justice? Is she really innocent or guilty? With this rewriting of historical narrative, López Mozo undermines the cultural tradition of the “chingada”, the woman who betrayed all Latin America, and gives her a voice and history. López Mozo shows us a second perspective of a woman hated by her own people and forever condemned. He asks us to reflect on her condition and to ask ourselves if she truly is the great traitor or if she is a woman caught in the middle of a situation without escape or salvation. All translations in Spanish are mine “? que en lo que escribas me hagas justicia” (López-Mozo 30)

Re-mapping Mansfield Park: Decolonizing nineteenth-century British canonical fiction through digital visualization tools

Primary Author: Nazua Idris

Faculty Sponsor: Roger Whitson

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Principal Topic In “Decolonizing the Digital Humanities,” Roopika Risam prompts the DH practitioners to use digital tools to deconstruct Western epistemological structures, recover the data hidden or silenced by those structures, re-centralize the marginalized narratives, and create counter-narratives that challenge the existing forms of misrepresentation. Echoing Risam, I argue how digital tools can open up possible ways of representing literary texts that enable students to disentangle more covert forms of racial logic sustained by the print-based texts, wherein historical context is relegated to endnotes, footnotes, and appendices. Method Using Scalar, a digital publishing platform, I developed a project titled Re-mapping Mansfield Park: In Search of the Silenced Spaces of Slave History. For this project, I annotated selected chapters from Jane Austen’s novel Mansfield Park with the history of the transatlantic slave trade and developed an alternative story universe that juxtaposes Austen’s primary narrative with a parallel historical narrative of oppression against the Afrodiasporic people. Results/Implications Using this project as an example, I argue how technologically-enhanced critical frameworks contribute to enhancing the experience of reading a literary text, while providing new directions in understanding the text as part of a historical process. My project shifts the perspective of this novel from a white female author to a reader of color?providing a counternarrative to this canonical text. Moreover, the inclusion of various digital tools helps the project integrate an interdisciplinary approach to represent this literary text and widens the scope of this project as a pedagogical tool beyond literature classrooms.

Reducing water use in Washington vineyards through direct root zone irrigation

Primary Author: Pete Jacoby

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Wine grape production in Washington State exceeds 55,000 acres and continues to expand at almost 9 percent annually, accounting for $4.8 billion in annual economic impact. Most of this production occurs under desert-like environments east of the Cascade Mountains. Water is the lifeblood of this industry and is also the primary natural resource that could limit its future growth. Research is being conducted by WSU scientists to achieve greater water use efficiency while maintaining yields and enhancing wine grape quality for premium wines. Our lab group has conducted in-field research with Kiona Winery and Vineyards near Benton City, WA since 2015 to evaluate the applicability of subsurface drip irrigation applied directly into the root zone of vines at a depth of 2 or more feet below the soil surface. This technique has enabled grape production to be maintained at or above commercial rates with only 40 percent of the water normally used. By delivering the water into the lower root zone, grape vines can be subjected to more regulated levels of stress essential for improving quality without sacrificing yields. Our on-going research efforts are expected to determine additional benefits, This technology, labeled DRZ micro-irrigation, should become commercially available in 2019 for use by winegrowers in Washington and other irrigated growing regions. These research results should result in significant reductions in water use and enable continued growth and profitability for Washington’s agricultural industries into the foreseeable future.

Optimizing the location of green stormwater practices at a watershed scale

Primary Author: Ani Jayakaran

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Puyallup

Abstract:

Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GSI) within urbanizing landscapes provides ecosystem services far beyond stormwater management alone. Recent research at WSU Puyallup demonstrated that GSI could protect aquatic fauna. Research has also shown that people living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly benefit from proximal GSI installations. Under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Washington jurisdictions are required to use GSI to manage stormwater when developing or redeveloping land. In highly urbanized landscapes, the choice of specific GSI is primarily constrained by the availability of space and redevelopment cost. However, such choice is complicated by other factors in watersheds that are mixed-use, or transitioning from agricultural or forested to urban. With this work we have piloted a testable methodology for the sustainable management of stormwater at the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus. Specific objectives were to: (a) develop a framework for community-based outreach informed by science and community needs; and (b) develop a scalable and portable landscape-level methodology for locating GSI based on hydrologic controls. Methods adopted to reach these objectives were to deploy a community survey to gage attitudes on flooding and stormwater, conduct two landscape architecture student design studios to outline possible stormwater management strategies, and thirdly, complete a hydrologic analyses of the Puyallup watershed to map hydrologic controls to stormwater management. Our results show that awareness of stormwater issues in the general population is generally lacking, while at the same time, a landscape level tool based on hydrologic controls could be of considerable benefit to decision making.

The synergistic effect of nitrogen functionalities and metals on cellulose char on the removal of phosphate ions

Primary Author: Yaime Jefferson Milan

Co-Author(s): Michael Apasiku

Sohrab Haghighi Mood

Faculty Sponsor: Manuel Garcia Perez

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The release of phosphate in the runoff is today a major threat to the environment and humans. Therefore, it is vital to develop effective technologies to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions before they are discharged into runoff and natural water bodies. This study aims to contribute to the field by experimentally adsorption of phosphate by using nitrogen and metals functionalized chars. In order to isolate the contribution of individual components of lignocellulosic biomass, simple cellulose was used for the char production. Five samples of nitrogen-doped chars were produced via annealing cellulose under ammonia gas at different temperatures (500, 600, 700, 800, 850 and 900 ?). Characterization of the resulting chars shows an increase of the nitrogen content in the samples, where the greater percentage of it appears at the temperature of 800 ? (12.5 wt%) and the maximum surface was for char produced at 900 ? (1314 m2/g). To evaluate the effect of nitrogen and metals in char to adsorb phosphate ions, three sets of chars were produced at 800 ?; Mg_N_Cellulose char (with Magnesium and Nitrogen); N_Cellulose char (with nitrogen) and Mg_Cellulose char (with magnesium). These samples were subsequently used to carry out the process of phosphate adsorption. The results showed that Mg_N_Cellulose char showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 340 mg/g, showing that there is synergistic effect of metals (magnesium) and nitrogen in the retention of phosphate on the surface of the char.

Equine-facilitated psychotherapy for psychological symptoms: A meta-analysis

Primary Author: Jane Jenkins

Faculty Sponsor: Hsin-Ya Liao, Kira Carbonneau, Phyllis Erdman

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Approximately 44.7 million adults nationwide experience mental illness. Almost half of adolescents and one of seven children experience a mental disorder before age 18. A fraction of them receive the mental health services they need, resulting in a critical need to develop innovative and efficacious psychological treatments targeting varying age groups and disorders. Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP) for mental health problems has been widely used but under-evaluated in terms of its efficacy for treatment of psychological disorders. Furthermore, studies examining equine-related activities often focus on global outcomes, limiting identification of effective interventions for specific populations and mental health difficulties. This meta-analysis evaluated EFP for psychological symptoms to move toward identifying such interventions. Our hypotheses were (1) EFP will show overall efficacy for psychological symptoms, and (2) Specific characteristics moderate EFP efficacy. Twenty-six studies met criteria for inclusion. Results indicated a statistically significant effect of .27 (p < .001, 95% CI = [.14, 0.40]). Hedge’s homogeneity test for effect sizes was also statistically significant, Q(25) = 970.24, p < .001), thus moderator analyses were conducted. The following study characteristics moderated the effectiveness of EFP: intervention focus, sex, age, intervention duration, and intervention protocols. Specifically, standardized interventions focusing on anxiety, depression and behavior in females or children/adolescents produced stronger EFP effects than other modalities or populations. Briefer and unmounted interventions were also preferable as their effects were similar to their counterparts. EFP may fill the need as an alternative therapy that can be modified for a wide range of populations and presenting problems.

WSU Libraries’ role in undergraduate student success: A multi-institutional study

Primary Author: Corey Johnson

Co-Author(s): Jennifer Saulnier

Primary College/Unit: Libraries

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Libraries

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Over the course of the last quarter century, the instruction mission of academic libraries has greatly expanded. The number of instruction sessions at the WSU Libraries has tripled over this time period. The central focus of library instruction is the development of information literacy (IL) skills, IL being one of WSU’s Seven Undergraduate Learning Goals. Academic libraries are working to understand the impacts participation in library instruction has on student IL learning. In 2014, WSU Libraries committed to involvement in a six-year study organized by the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA). The GWLA Student Learning Outcome (SLO) Project, including twelve U.S. research universities, seeks to understand what effect library instruction in general, and specific library instruction methods, have on the academic success of college students. The 2014-15 combined institutional results show that all teaching methods (active learning, directed practice, flipped classroom and lecture) have a positive effect on retention, and students receiving library instruction can be expected to complete 1.8 more credit hours per academic year and earn 0.02 points higher in terms of ending first-year GPA. At WSU, there was a positive correlation between having participated in library instruction and a higher retention rate, and earning more first-year credit hours (1.2).

The impact of the Mental Health First Aid elective on pharmacy students’ explicit biases

Primary Author: Nancy Johnson

Co-Author(s): Jennifer Robinson

Faculty Sponsor: Jennifer Robinson

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Objective: The explore the utilization of a mental elective to decrease self-reported mental illness related stigma. Methods: Fifteen-item pre- and post-class surveys were administered to second- and third-year student pharmacists enrolled in a mental health two-credit elective course. Surveys consisted of 15 items from the Opening Minds to Stigma Scale for Heath Care Providers, including 1) attitudes of health care providers, 2) disclosure and help-seeking behavior, and 3) social distance. During the course, student pharmacists received Mental Health First Aid training and engaged in activities to gain insight about individuals living with a mental illness. Results: The pre- and post-course surveys resulted in 51 paired responses for a 93% (51/55) response rate. The greatest change was observed with the survey item, “Despite my professional beliefs, I have negative reactions towards people who have a mental illness,” where 29/51 (56%) and 44/51 (86%) answered disagree/strongly-disagree during the pre-course and post-course surveys, respectively. When prompted with “I would be reluctant to seek help if I had a mental illness”, respondents agreed/strongly-agreed 17/51 (33%) pre-course and 11/51 (22%) post-course. Statistically significant changes were observed in the following domains: attitudes of health care providers (p<0.0001), disclosure or help-seeking behavior (p=0.0008), and social distance (p=0.044) Conclusion: Results indicate respondents’ willingness to support individuals living with a mental illness. The same group displays hesitancy when seeking out care for their own mental health. Post-class survey results indicate the course was effective with increasing self-reported help-seeking behaviors and decreasing stigma related to social distance and help-seeking behavior.

Improving undergraduate engineering education through writing: Implementation in the classroom alongside a hands-on learning pedagogy

Primary Author: Kitana Kaiphanliam

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Bernie Van Wie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

As undergraduate engineering students graduate and advance in their careers, they are faced with multiple tasks that require them to write extensively, whether that be in industry or graduate school. Because of the insufficient writing requirements in undergraduate engineering curricula, many engineers are unprepared for the writing-demand necessary to convey their own ideas or understanding of ideas. More rigorous writing practices would not only improve effective communication skills as undergraduate students pursue their education, but it can also help students develop a deeper conceptual foundation of engineering topics. The writing pedagogy of interest follows a scaffolded approach and will be implemented alongside a current hands-on learning pedagogy in a junior-level fluid mechanics class (CHE 332). Students begin by taking a pre-test with a descriptive paragraph of the technical phenomena occurring in a Venturi meter; certain phrases of the paragraph will be narrowed to two options, where they will have to choose the correct phrase. Students will then use the Venturi hands-on learning device, followed by a posttest. In the posttest, the sections that were previously narrowed down to two options consist of blanks instead, where students will be required to write their own comprehensible phrases. These initial steps will help students learn how to discuss engineering concepts, leading them to be able to write full paragraphs on their own on the first exam (February 22nd, 2019). The results of this implementation will be compared to previous semesters when the scaffolded writing pedagogy was not used, acting as the control.

Virus-host interactions: AI meets biology

Primary Author: Hira Kamal

Faculty Sponsor: Hanu Pappu

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) caused by viruses of genus Begomovirus is a major constraint to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production worldwide. Symptoms of the disease are caused by cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) that encodes a pathogenicity determinant protein ßC1. Here, we report the interaction prediction in ßC1 protein by using AI-based computational approaches including sequence recognition, and binding site and interface prediction methods. We show the domain-level interaction using structural analysis of G. hirsutum SnRK1 protein and its domains with CLCuMB-ßC1 structure. To verify and validate the in-silico predictions, three different experimental approaches including yeast two hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull down assay were used. These results were in agreement with the computational predictions and showed that the UBA and AIS domains of G. hirsutum-encoded SnRK1 binds with and phosphorylates CLCuMB-ßC1. This is the first comprehensive investigation that combined in-silico interaction prediction followed by experimental validation of interaction between CLCuMB-ßC1 and a host protein. Data from computational biology could provide binding site information between CLCuD-associated viruses/satellites and new hosts that lacks known binding site information for protein-protein interaction studies. Findings could provide insights into developing novel strategies to interfere with the virus life cycle.

Health Education through Arts-based Learning (HEAL): A pilot program on the art of insects

Primary Author: Molly Kelton

Co-Author(s): Robert Danielson

Jeb Owen

Alison White

Gina Ord

Patricia Butterfield

Ana Maria Martinez

Elizabeth Grace

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

For many minority children living in US rural-agricultural regions, Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) can seem out of reach. This may be especially true for the nation’s rapidly growing rural Latino population. In this project we are investigating how the arts might bolster participation in STEM, particularly for underrepresented learners. We report on data and emergent findings from pilot educational programs developed by the Health-STEM Education through Arts-based Learning (HEAL) partnership. Emerging STEM-education scholars in WSU’s College of Education, CAHNRS, the College of Medicine, and WSU Extension lead the HEAL partnership. This partnership is supported by a WSU New Faculty Seed Grant as well as an NIH SEPA award. HEAL develops and evaluates novel educational programs to teach elementary children from predominantly-Latino populations in Central Washington about ecological dynamics and infectious diseases affecting rural-agricultural areas. We are investigating innovative visual communication strategies, such as scientific illustration and photography, to expand culturally relevant opportunities for students to engage in STEM fields. In this study we will share data and conclusions from two implementations of a 6-week afterschool program that utilized the arts to teach children about mosquito biology, population dynamics, and infectious disease. Data for this study are innovative and include content assessments, one-on-one and focus-group interviews, visual-arts assessments, and students’ scientific artwork. All data for this project have been collected and analyses are underway. Emerging findings suggest that visual arts may provide novel strategies for both assessing and bolstering students’ abilities to think and communicate about complex scientific systems.

Design of scalable and flexible islanded microgrid for rural electrification

Primary Author: Rabia Khan

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Noel N. Schulz

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Principal topic: The topic is “Design of scalable and flexible islanded microgrid for rural electrification”. Energy poverty is a big enigma, that needs to be considered for millions of people suffering in remote rural communities without electricity access. They heavily rely on fossils fuels (kerosene, candles, wood, and biowaste) for cooking and light. As the grid extension is cost prohibitive in distant emerging areas, the renewable energy sources (RES) are an optimal solution for off-grid communities. Method In this research work, a hybrid microgrid system is designed and simulated in Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) based on the estimated load demand and available energy resources. Three different rural villages from Ethiopia, Uganda, and Brazil are considered for a comparative performance analysis based on the least cost of energy (LCOE). Two different dispatch strategies, i.e., i) Load following and ii) Cycle charging is implemented with the different scheduled operation of the diesel generator and bio generator. The solar and wind resource data are obtained from the National Solar Radiation Database (prediction of the worldwide database) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) respectively. An optimized microgrid model is selected for further analysis based on cost-effectiveness. Results/implications The results of sensitivity analysis, techno-economic analysis and cost optimization based on LCOE verify the feasibility of the proposed microgrid system. The proposed microgrid system can be implemented practically in rural areas of any region by performing the feasibility analysis and cost optimization based on the resources and loads in the area.

Design and optimization of multitier gate-level monolithic 3D ICs

Primary Author: Dae Hyun Kim

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Three-dimensional (3D) integration stacks multiple silicon layers and fabricates vertical interconnects for inter-layer electrical connections, thereby improving the chip performance significantly. Especially, monolithic 3D integration enables fabrication of ultra-small vertical interconnects, so-called monolithic inter-layer vias (MIVs) and ultra-thin silicon layers. Recently, multitier monolithic 3D integration technology stacking more than two silicon layers has been developed. Since stacking more silicon layers generally enables a larger amount of wire length reduction, performance improvement, and power saving than stacking only two silicon layers, multitier monolithic 3D integration is expected to provide the largest amount of quality improvement. Thus, academia and industry have strong interests in building and fabricating multitier monolithic 3D integrated circuits (ICs). However, no effort has been made to design, optimize, and explore multitier monolithic 3D ICs yet. Unfortunately, design and optimization of multitier monolithic 3D ICs is very different from that of two-tier monolithic 3D ICs because the former should be able to handle many silicon and routing layers, whereas the latter requires only some tweaking of commercial tools. In this project, we have developed algorithms to design and optimize multitier monolithic 3D ICs. The 3D legalization algorithm legalizes instance locations in multiple silicon layers. The MIV insertion algorithm finds MIV locations for 3D routing. The 3D routing algorithm routes all the 2D and 3D nets in a given design. Simulation results show that our algorithms for multitier monolithic 3D IC design achieves shorter wire length than a state-of-the-art algorithm.

Vortex-free high-Reynolds deterministic lateral displacement via symmetric airfoil pillars

Primary Author: Jong-Hoon Kim

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Vancouver

Abstract:

Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a method of inertial size-based particle separation with potential applications in high throughput biosample processing, such as the fractionation of blood or the purification of target species like viral particles or circulating tumor cells. However, processing of practical volumes (mL to L) is a major challenge. Recently, it has been shown that the effective critical diameter (Dc), the minimum size that can be separated in a DLD array, will decrease with increasing flow rate, allowing for enhanced separation and a moderate dynamic range. While experimental evidence has been established for high throughput operation of DLD with the formation of microvortices in the wake of the pillars, the mechanism responsible for the Dc shift still remains unclear. Here, we present a high throughput investigation with symmetric airfoil-shaped pillars of two different angle of attacks (AoA). A neutral AoA configuration allows for high throughput operation without the formation of vortices, as demonstrated through flow field simulations, while negative AoA configurations yield significant vortex effects. By comparing the performance of these two configurations, we have shown that the Dc shift associated with increasing flow rate is not a result of emerging vortices, but rather of shifting streamlines. Furthermore, the chaotic vortex effects appear to impede separation efficiency, resulting in less stable crossover conditions and a wider mixed mode. Therefore, we conclude that symmetric airfoil pillars with a neutral AoA allow for optimized high throughput separation, with the elimination of chaotic vortex effects and an improved separation resolution.

Synthesis and characterization of modified vanadium glass cathodes

Primary Author: Michael Kindle

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Min-Kyu Song

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The desire for scalable energy storage technologies with higher specific energy densities is critical for electric vehicles and grid energy storage. Glass cathodes can have a capacity up to 500 mAh/g and typically can be created in facile melt quench procedures making them scalable. Glasses have been shown to have improved performance for systems containing vanadium pentoxide. The increased performance in the glass system is linked to the lack of irreversible loss that occurs from crystalline phase changes. However, the difference in performance between glass systems still needs investigation. The LiBO2-V2O5 system is a potential high-performing cathode material and is investigated in this study with spectroscopic, thermal analysis, diffraction and electrochemical techniques. Specifically, an analysis of the effect of lithium metaborate and alumina and how they alter the glass formability, structure and electrochemical behavior has been performed. Select samples were also presented with various heat-treatment steps to recrystallize the material which is shown to significantly alter electrochemical performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (V) and nuclear magnetic resonance (B-11) data show that alumina stabilizes and increases the BO3 coordinated species and decreases V4+ concentration which promotes VO4 chains to form with BO3 units, which is a stable glass structure according to literature. This is likely due to the [AlO4]- species, which requires lithium for charge compensation and reduces the amount of [BO4]- units that can form. This extension of the borovanadate glass forming region and structural analysis could improve the energy density of lithium metal batteries with further study.

Weathering heights: Evaluation of honey bee mating behavior utilizing RFID

Primary Author: Melanie Kirby

Faculty Sponsor: Walter Sheppard

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The improvement of honey bee stocks through selective breeding represents one sustainable approach to assure future pollination services for food production and security, and to maintain and enhance the queen production industry, which struggles to meet market demand in the early spring. The goal of this research is to improve our understanding of honey bee (Apis mellifera) mating flight behavior of various strains utilizing RFID (radio frequency identification). The findings could improve breeding protocols to enhance production and minimize losses. Inadequate mating of queens is known to limit quality and affect the capacity of producers to provide quality stock. RFID technology will permit evaluation of a larger set of genotype x environment combinations and number of mating events than has been possible using direct observation. Field testing of the initial RFID units designed by WSU engineering undergraduates occurred this past 2018 spring and summer. This project is in continuation with modification of RFID readers to solar power which will allow data collection in sites that do not have power access. Results will provide a fundamental improvement of our understanding of honey bee mating behavior and enhance profitability of queen producers and beekeepers. With this information, producers will be better able to select, integrate, and propagate appropriate honey bee stocks relative to seasonal weather conditions. Hypothesis: 1) Are there observable differences in virgin queen and drone mating flight periods and duration among Apis mellifera subspecies/strains? 2) Are there significant interactions between genotype and environment in mating behavior in honey bee subspecies/strains?

Anaplasma marginale infection dynamics in an endemic area

Primary Author: Roberta Koku

Faculty Sponsor: Susan Noh

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Paul G. Allen School for Global Animal Health

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Multi-strain infections are medically important because they can prevent our ability to treat and prevent infections efficiently. Multi-strain infections can occur via co-infection, in which multiple strains are acquired prior to the development of an adaptive immune response, or super-infection, in which strain are acquired after the development of the adaptive immune response. The later scenario requires greater genetic diversity. In the case of Anaplasma marginale, a production-limiting, tick borne bacterial pathogen of cattle, multi-strain infections are thought to be common in regions of high prevalence. However, under natural transmission conditions, it is unknown if strains are predominantly acquired through co-infection or super-infection. Due to the high genetic diversity among A. marginale strains, we hypothesize that A. marginale strains are primarily acquired by super-infection. We will address this questions by tracking the acquisition of A. marginale strains over time under natural transmission conditions in a region of Ghana with high A. marginale prevalence and high transmission pressure. Twenty-five bovine blood samples were collected from persistently infected animals maintained on pasture the University of Ghana experimental farms. Genotyping to determine the number of strains per animal was done using multi-locus sequence typing based on five genes encoding outer membrane proteins. Of these 25 animals, 75% (17/25) harboured between 2 to 5 strains, demonstrating that animals are infected with multiple genetically distinct strains in this endemic region of Ghana. Next will introduce naïve animals into the herd and track the acquisition of strains through time to differentiate between co-infection and super-infection.

Caregivers as proxies for assessing youth participant engagement in the Wraparound with Intensive Services (WISe) Program in Washington State

 

Primary Author: Rose Krebill-Prather

Co-Author(s): Kent J. Miller

Kristen R. Petersen

Felix I. Rodriguez

Primary College/Unit: Office of Research

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Social and Economic Sciences Research Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

An assessment survey was implemented in 2017 with children and their caregivers who are participating in the Wraparound with Intensive Services (WISe) Program in Washington. The program uses a comprehensive, service delivery model focusing on the strengths and voice of participants, and their families, in every phase of treatment. For participants younger than 13 years, caregivers are asked to complete the survey on behalf of their child. Participants ages 13 and older (youth) are asked to complete the survey on their own behalf, however their caregivers are also asked to complete the survey. While a 39% response rate was obtained with caregivers overall (784/2007), obtaining responses from youth was more challenging with a 24% response rate (279/1164). If youth and caregivers assess their engagement in the WISe program similarly, could caregiver responses serve as proxy responses for the youth participants, thus helping to increase the overall representation of youth respondents in the survey? Just over a quarter of youth who responded to the survey had a caregiver who also responded, so we compared survey results for pairs of youth and caregiver respondents to see if their assessments were the same or different. Preliminary results suggest youth and caregivers provide ratings that are not significantly different on all but one key dimension of their engagement in the WISe program. These findings suggest that caregivers could be youth proxies for assessing most dimensions of the WISe program. However, the key dimension where their ratings differ raises interesting questions regarding program outcomes.

Creative Corridor cross-disciplinary connections with real-world goals

Primary Author: Robert Krikac

Co-Author(s): Lisa Johnson

Reza Safavi

Denise Yost

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Writing Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

How can the university bridge the gaps between academic silos and create multi-disciplinary experiences for undergraduate students? The “Bench of Belonging” project is a stellar example of how student and faculty participants in the Creative Corridor have done exactly that?forging enduring cross-disciplinary connections while accomplishing hands-on, real-world goals. This poster documents the process of the student collaborators and faculty mentors who created a piece of furniture that will be installed in the SPARK building. The function of this piece is to bring students together while engendering feelings of acceptance and inclusion in the WSU community. For two years students and faculty from different academic disciplines have been working together to produce an artifact that will create a sense of belonging in students. Students from animal sciences, interior design and business degree programs were assembled in the fall of 2017 and asked to design a “bench of belonging.” At first, this goal seemed too broad; without the additional stipulations and restrictions typical of course assignments, the students found it challenging to define their own objectives and design process. Faculty mentors provided critical support by facilitating student discussions; faculty feedback helped students clarify and synthesize their ideas without the imposition of outside limitations. Students were given a “site” inside the SPARK building and their vision of the project evolved from a “bench of belonging” to a “table of belonging.” The design has been prototyped and refined through additional feedback from student-led focus groups and discussions with industry professionals.

Synthesis of biologically relevant a-ketophosphonates for the inhibition of glutaminolysis in cancer cells

Primary Author: Laken Kruger

Faculty Sponsor: Travis T. Denton

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): WSU Health Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

In numerous myc-driven cancers, the Warburg effect (a metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis) is employed and, in many cases, glutamine anaplerosis (glutaminolysis) is utilized to replenish the TCA cycle with a-ketoglutarate. The overarching goal of this project is to selectively kill cancer cells by inhibiting the glutaminolysis pathway at individual, or successive, transformation points by diminishing the conversion of glutamine to glutamate via glutaminase, the conversion of glutamate to a-ketoglutarate by glutamate dehydrogenase or transaminases. Additionally, inhibition of the a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and/or isocitrate dehydrogenase of the TCA cycle could lead to cancer cell selective toxicity. This study focuses on the optimization of the synthesis of phosphonate analogues of a-ketoglutarate including carboxyethyl succinyl phosphonate (CESP) and additional ester forms of SP. The accepted procedure produces CESP directly from the triethyl ester of SP (TESP). This presentation will focus on the optimization of the procedures used to produce alternative esters, isolation and purification of the esters, production, isolation and purification of alternative forms of intermediates and, ultimately, the acquisition of CESP in pure form.

Pt-Pd nanoparticles-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of atrazine

Primary Author: Eunice Kwon

Faculty Sponsor: Bernard J. Vanwie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide in the United States. However, the Environmental Protection Agency has issued warnings about the usage of atrazine because of its reported effects, such as the increased incidence of mammary tumors in female rats and reproductive toxicity in amphibia. Therefore, developing efficient ways for detecting the herbicide residue is critically important. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a useful method for detecting chemicals for which antibodies exist due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency. However, the assay typically requires separate application of a secondary antibody linked to an enzyme which catalyzes conversion of a non-colored organic to a detectable colored product. In this study, Pt-Pd nanoparticles were synthesized which directly bind to the primary antibody eliminating one step in the ELISA process and applied for sensitive detection of the herbicide residue, atrazine. Due to the strong peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Pt-Pd, sensitivity increased significantly. Using this method, we obtained an LOD of 0.5 ppb and applied it well water and pond water samples spiked with atrazine. Our tests at 5, 10 and 20 ppb yielded recoveries of 88~118 % suggesting atrazine and other herbicides and pesticides can be detected by use of peroxidase-like Pt-Pd nanoparticles in an ELISA format.

Culture-centric narratives of influenza vaccination among high-risk groups in Hong Kong

Primary Author: Danielle Ka Lai Lee

Co-Author(s): Crystal Li Jiang

Faculty Sponsor: Prof. Porismita Borah

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In spite of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination, the uptake rate among high-risk groups in Hong Kong is far from satisfactory. Guided by the Health Belief Model and Culture-centric Narrative approach, this study intended to understand the role of cultural specificities in implicit assumptions held by at-risk individuals who accepted and rejected the vaccination. Data was collected from twenty-nine in-depth interviews with the high-risk groups. From the results of the decision narratives, it is evident that the Health Belief Model is culturally contextualized when the high-risk individuals decided whether or not to be vaccinated against influenza. For instance, emphasis on well-beings of their ingroup members and holistic considerations of the communities were found to be the leading assumptions when the high-risk individuals made sense of their susceptibility to infection, perceptions of influenza severity, perceived barriers and benefits of taking vaccination. Theoretical and practical implications of vaccination campaign designs were also discussed.

Agricultural truck freight safety analysis

Primary Author: Jukwan Lee

Co-Author(s): Timur Dincer

Eric Jessup

Faculty Sponsor: Eric Jessup

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Truck freight serves a vital and critical function in the movement of agricultural products. Congress and Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration have recognized the need to provide agricultural operations and drivers with flexibility in applying safety regulations for this reason. This flexibility includes the statutory 150 air-mile and farm truck exemptions from the Commercial Drives License, drivers’ hours of service etc. However, the attributes of agricultural products contribute to the challenges associated with truck freight safety. Agricultural freights are heavy, time-sensitive and requiring specialized equipment. Also, the agricultural truck drivers are often not professionally trained. Given these unique aspects, the relative safety of agricultural truck freight is questioned. To this end, we analyzed the relative safety performance of agricultural carriers using crash information reported to Motor Carrier Management Information System from 2008 to 2018. By using Generalized Linear Models, we tried to explore the association between the carrier types and crash rates, and between the severity of the crashes with cargo type. The results show that nationally, the exemptions from the safety regulations for agricultural freight can, in general, give rise to more severe consequences. The safety of trucks is found to be varying across the commodity type. Findings also suggest that once crash happened, agricultural cargo found to be associated with more severe consequences compared to the non-agricultural cases after controlling weather, road condition, vehicle size and season. We cannot say how much these exemptions have improved the agricultural productivity, yet we found that truck safety is deteriorated.

The Weight of Water

Primary Author: Buddy Levy

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In 2014 I was part of an expedition down the Grand Canyon in which blind adventurer Erik Weihenmayer paddled the Colorado River through the canyon. The expedition resulted in a book I co-authored with him entitled No Barriers (Thomas Dunne Books, 2017). I also was a contributing writer on the subsequent 2018 film about Erik’s historic expedition. That film, The Weight of Water, recently won the Grand Prize at the 2018 Banff Mountain Film and Book Festival, and also won that festival’s award for Best Mountain Adventure film. A week later, The Weight of Water won the People’s Choice Award for Best Documentary Feature (Dec 2018). The Weight of Water is the story of a blind adventurer Erik Weihenmayer taking on an absurdly improbable challenge, kayaking the Grand Canyon. Erik desires the elusive state of being that so many of us seek, to be engaged in the present moment. “It’s so hard to be fully in the moment because there’s so much fear, there’s so much anxiety, it’s like a person looking through a window at an experience rather than being in the experience.” — Erik Weihenmayer Praise for the film and writing: ” With a subtle and deft touch, the film remarkably brings us into Erik’s mind and his fears as he makes his way down the river with an effortless and pure storytelling style.” Mendi Festival Jury.

Bam! Chicago and the Black Arts Movement

Primary Author: Thabiti Lewis

Co-Author(s): Pavithra Naraynan

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Vancouver

Abstract:

“Bam!: Chicago’s Black Arts Movement” is a documentary film that singularly assemble the writers, institutions and visual artists of Chicago in Black Arts Movement (BAM) studies. This film, which is tied to my book, is about a cityscape and how a cityscape gave rise to or at least significantly impacted a moment internally and externally. While it is noted that the BAM emerged in New York and Newark, NJ, and that Detroit’s literary institutions of the BAM developed before Chicago’s, the “literary activism on the South Side of Chicago, both in terms of informal networks and of such formal institutions as the DuSable Museum, Negro Digest, and the African American press, laid much of the foundation for the growth of the Black Arts movement in Chicago, Detroit and other cities throughout the Midwest. This more comprehensive vision of the Black Arts Movement experience in Chicago serves as a lens through which to better understand the role of institution building, city formations throughout the nation, and the enormous impact of Chicago on Black communities across the country. “Bam! Chicago and the Black Arts Movement” takes us beyond flattened notions of the moment that have bound its significance in the intellectual and literary imagination, and across broader fields of activity, and through unconventional modes of knowledge production. The documentary is an interdisciplinary approach that smoothes rough edges and fine grains of the period to harvest a richer understanding and praise for a movement that predicated itself on motion, movement and change.

Can local resources be divided up regardless of ecological perils?

Primary Author: Xinmin Liu

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Languages, Cultures, and Race

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In the era of Anthropocene, we humanists need to interact with social and natural scientists in a joint effort to curtail the spread of technological triumphalism impacted by market-driven industrialization. I examine the idea of “cash changeover” (Bianxian) used by Chinese technocrats as the logical basis for damming rivers, lumbering forests, extracting minerals in exchange for fast-track economic growth and short-term revenue during their terms of office (1990s-2000s). I review one such case of implementing the “cash changeover” policy in damming the Nu River in southwestern China in which the local cadres used a computational method to obtain a statistical sum total of the local resources, such as the lands, the mineral deposits, the timber to be harvested from forests, and the energy to be extracted from the river currents; next they divided the sum-total to obtain a one-fifth amount as “expendable cash,” and then sold their resources and cash crops to the worth of this amount as if it were loans from an investment bank; they finally spent the cash on planned lucrative projects or contracts they had the authority to approve and undertake. By way of journalistic and documentary footage, I critique the notion that one can go selling land-based resources as if they were removable items of one’s belongings and consume them regardless of the ecological perils. I strive to re-enchant a notion of the traditional Chinese ethics, “human-land affinity” (Rendi qihe) so that humans can cohabit the lands with non-human life forms in harmony. (250 words)

The future crude-oil price based on the supply-demand equation with an uncertainty

Primary Author: Yu-Yu Liu

Co-Author(s): Hong-Ming Yin

Faculty Sponsor: Hong-Ming Yin

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

In this project we study the future crude-oil price based on the supply-demand equation. With certain assumptions, we use the historical data to analyze various parameters to obtain the supply and demand equations. Suppose the uncertain factor on the crude-oil rice follows a Brownian motion with a constant volatility. We then use a symmetric supply-demand equation with an uncertain volatility to establish a mathematical model on future crude-oil price. The resulting model involves a stochastic differential equation. With the mathematical model, we are able to predict the future crude-oil price.

Quality assurance training in extension: Linking livestock producers and consumers

Primary Author: Donald Llewellyn

Co-Author(s): Sarah Dreger

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): WSU Extension

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Livestock producers are committed to the production of safe and wholesome meat products for consumers. For more than two decades the National Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) program has strived to achieve this goal. Washington State University Extension Faculty coordinate the BQA effort in the State of Washington and deliver face to face BQA programs across the state to certify beef producers from all segments of the production chain (cow-calf, stocker, backgrounder, seedstock, feedlot, and transportation). In doing so, cattle owners and managers adhere to Best Management Practices (BMP) with the overall focus of safe and wholesome beef. Recently, WSU Extension has devoted significant effort to BQA producer trainings as a major beef processor in the United States is now requiring certification that animals have been raised and managed utilizing BQA BMPs. Likewise, the National Youth for the Quality Care of Animals (YQCA) program is delivered by our Extension team and provides training and education for young people. Youth for the Quality Care of Animals is a multi-species program (i.e. beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits, and poultry) and is required by many livestock shows and fairs for youth to be able to exhibit and/or sell their animals. The objective is to evaluate the impact of quality assurance trainings coordinated and delivered by our Extension team and to place a value on the programming for both producers (youth and adult) and consumers.

Deep learning based segmentation for automatic apple trees trellis training

Primary Author: Yaqoob Majeed

Co-Author(s): Jing Zhang

Xin Zhang

Longsheng Fu

Manoj Karkee

Qin Zhang

Matthew D. Whiting

Faculty Sponsor: Prof. Dr. Qin Zhang

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Prosser

Abstract:

Trellised trained modern apple orchards are not only important for the high fruit yield and quality, but also helps to create opportunities for the automated/robotic field operations, i.e. harvesting, pruning. Because of the uncertainty in labor availability and increasing labor cost, manual training of apple trees to these modern orchard architectures is becoming challenging. Automated training using sensing and robotic techniques could be an alternative solution due to its advantages of increased speed and reduced cost. Segmenting the trunk, branch, and trellis wire of the untrained trees is the first and foremost step towards automated tree training operation. In this study, trunk and branch of the untrained trees and trellis wires were segmented using the deep learning based semantic segmentation. Simple-RGB and Foreground-RGB images obtained from point cloud data of Kinect V2 were used to train the convolutional neural network (CNN) based segmentation network (SegNet), separately. Trunk and branch, which share the common features, were segmented out from each other with accuracy of 0.82 and 0.89 for Simple-RGB images, and 0.91 and 0.92 for Foreground-RGB images. Similarly, trellis wire, which has distinct features from the trunk and branch, were segmented out with accuracies of 0.92 and 0.97 for the Simple-RGB and Foreground-RGB images, respectively. Based on the results, the segmentation accuracies for the Foreground-RGB images is higher as compared to Simple-RGB images. The result from this study shows a great potential of adopting deep learning based semantic segmentation for the automated operation of apple tree training in the field environment.

“I Have a New Courage to Study English”: Motivation over a yearlong intensive English program

Primary Author: Yustinus Calvin Gai Mali

Co-Author(s): Pruksapan Bantawtook

Haixia He

Steven Morrison

Tom Salsbury

Faculty Sponsor: Tom Salsbury

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Motivation is a key driving force to stimulate and engage students toward language learning success. Despite a myriad of research exploring motivational factors, there is a relative dearth of empirical studies that investigate language learning motivation in a longitudinal manner. Particularly valuable to the field of language learning and higher education is the relationship between student success and motivation for university students in an Intensive English Program (IEP). In terms of motivation, IEPs represent a unique opportunity to understand how students who come from abroad negotiate a demanding foreign living environment while immersed in a target language. This study considers the motivation of one student, whether she expresses motivation to study English, and what factors continue to motivate her acquisition of the target language. Exploring the motivational factors of an adult Korean student who participated in a year-long Intensive English Program (IEP) in a university in the United States, a number of notable findings were revealed. With data garnered from the student’s daily journals, and drawing on a qualitative content analysis approach, the authors note nine motivational factors that the student expresses during the IEP program, of which self-motivation, supportive friends, and goal orientation were three most frequently mentioned. Practical and theoretical contributions of these findings for further research are discussed, particularly in terms of language learning for students while negotiating life abroad.

Feng and Ironhorse, dramatic new music for woodwind quintet

Primary Author: Keri McCarthy

Co-Author(s): Shannon Scott

Sophia Tegart

Martin King

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Pan Pacific Ensemble, Sophia Tegart, flute, Keri McCarthy, oboe, Shannon Scott, clarinet and Marin King, horn, supported by a New Faculty Seed Grant, identified both established and emerging Asian and Asian-American composers. These composers are not yet well represented in the standard wind quintet repertoire. P.Q. Phan’s (Vietnam) Fantasia – In Memoriam is a mood-infused soundscape based on a violent encounter between a cat and a coyote. Kaylvi (question in Tami), by Asha Srinivasan (Indian-American), presents a constrained sense of reaching for some goal that is never quite achieved. Thai composer Narong Prangcharoen’s Ambiguous Traces employs a multi-layered dense opening and ending with a traditional Thai-style folk melody in the middle. Pan Pacific Ensemble rehearsed both in Pullman and Bangkok, Thailand at the 2017 Thailand International Composers Festival, giving world premieres of several of the works on the two CDs at this festival. Premieres of Phan’s Fantasia – In Memoriam Rehearsing and Kaylvi (question in Tami), by Srinivasin took place at Whitman College’s Firdys and Four series in November 2018. Recording through the winter break in WSU’s recording studio with the outstanding help of Dave Bjur, WSU recording engineer, the ensemble recorded two CDs of never-before recorded repertoire, Feng and ironhorses. The future implication of this creative activity is the addition of Asian-viewpoint quintet wind quintets to the repertoire, and recording the works, making it easier for other ensembles to learn and program the repertoire.

Adapting an established biomathematical model to predict self-ratings of sleepiness

Primary Author: Mark E. McCauley

Co-Author(s): Peter McCauley

Samantha M. Riedy

Siobhan Banks

Adrian Ecker

David F. Dinges

Hans P.A. Van Dongen

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

In around-the-clock industries such as commercial aviation, fatigue from inadequate sleep duration and/or timing is of considerable concern. Biomathematical models provide a tool in such operational settings to objectively predict fatigue and fatigue-related safety risk. Given the nature of these operations, however, subjective measures of fatigue and sleepiness are more commonly used and easier to obtain than objective measures of fatigue and safety. Here we expanded an established biomathematical model that predicts objective fatigue-related impairment to also predict subjective sleepiness. Healthy young adults participating in sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, or shift work studies repeatedly rated their sleepiness using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. The ratings were used to re-estimate parameters of the previously established model using Metropolis-Hastings-type Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting. Keeping the original model structure intact, eight parameters from the earlier model were assumed invariant to the outcome metric and held to their previously published values, leaving four parameters open for estimation. The expanded model fitted the subjective sleepiness data well, explaining 41.9% of the variance at the level of individual data points. Notably, the temporal dynamics of the original model were preserved, albeit with a different critical duration of wakefulness beyond which fatigue is predicted to escalate. This implies that in operational settings relying on subjective fatigue estimates, individuals may overestimate the amount of sleep loss they can safely sustain over days. By predicting both objective and subjective fatigue, the expanded model provides a tool to help guard against excessive fatigue-related risk in such circumstances.

Adaptive evolution in extreme environments: Investigating genomic variation and signatures of selection on regulatory regions of the poeciliid fish genome

Primary Author: Kerry McGowan

Co-Author(s): Michael Tobler

Joanna Kelley

Faculty Sponsor: Joanna Kelley

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Extreme environments exert strong selective pressures that can drive local adaptation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) rich springs have high levels of H2S that are lethal to most organisms and contain a limited number of species. Changes in detoxification pathways and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) likely underlie the adaptive evolution to H2S in these successful species. The poeciliid fishes (family Poeciliidae) offer a rare vertebrate example of independent populations that have colonized sulfidic springs. These repeated colonizations provide a natural source of replication to characterize population- and species-level adaptive evolution in response to H2S. In Poecilia mexicana, there are evolved gene expression responses to H2S exposure; however, the underlying regulatory changes that control expression are unknown. Common garden experiments, comparative genomics, and molecular evolution analyses can be used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms underlying adaptation to high levels of H2S. We hypothesize the following: (1) H2S-induced differential gene expression in P. mexicana is controlled by changes in regulatory regions of the genome. More specifically, transcription factor binding sites that control gene expression related to H2S detoxification and OXPHOS will exhibit adaptive substitutions in sulfidic populations of the P. mexicana species complex. (2) Sulfidic lineages of Poeciliidae will exhibit signatures of positive selection in regulatory regions that control genes involved in H2S detoxification and OXPHOS.

Victimized adolescents recount peer actions that amplified their anger and calmed their emotions

Primary Author: Emma McMain

Co-Author(s): Rachel Wong

Gan Jin

Faculty Sponsor: Zoe Higheagle Strong

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Third-party adolescents (those aware of peer conflict outside the role of aggressor or victim) can help to shape their peers’ emotional responses to perceived victimization. Emotion regulation promotes resilience for those who have been victimized, and heightened anger can exacerbate negative outcomes. This study sought to understand how ethnically-diverse victimized adolescents described third-party actions that amplified their anger and calmed their emotions?and whether there were gender, ethnic, or school-level patterns. Data was drawn from 264 structured interviews using a multi-method, repeated measures design. Participants were 66 African Americans, 57 European Americans, 64 Mexican Americans and 77 Native Americans from the Northwest United States. Open- and process-coding identified 16 themes that described third-party actions, and pattern coding provided insight into why particular actions may be perceived as anger-amplifying or calming. Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests on action frequencies revealed six actions (e.g., co-ruminating) that were associated with amplifying victims’ anger and ten actions (e.g., reassuring) that were associated with calming victims’ emotions. Group patterns were examined using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Programs and interventions may draw on these qualitative accounts of victimized adolescents’ experiences that illustrate how third-party actions differentially impact peers during or after aggressive incidents.

¡Sí Se Puede! Culture, resilience, and well being in Mexican immigrant farmworkers

Primary Author: Brian McNeill

Co-Author(s): Karla Blanco

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Mexican immigrant farmworkers survive by engaging in back-breaking work to support themselves, put food on our plates, and support our billion-dollar agricultural industry. Recent research and theory identifies cultural values as important protective factors that can foster resilience. Consequently, the proposed study examines the relationships between cultural values, resilience, and well-being of farmworkers to understand the factors in creating a strong culture of health not only for this population, but for the promotion of resilience related to physical and psychological health across other immigrant and culturally diverse populations. A mixed methodological quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to identify how Latina/o cultural values influence resilience in Mexican immigrant farmworker populations within the context of The Relational and Resilience Theory of Ethnic Family Systems (R&RTEFS). The following specific research questions were investigated: (a) What cultural values, beliefs, and practices do Mexican farmworkers describe as contributing to their ability to overcome adverse circumstances in their lives and work? (b) How do Mexican cultural values relate to resilience and health? And (c) How do traditional Mexican cultural values of familism, spirituality, and cultural pride predict resilience and health in immigrant farmworker populations? Overall, results indicated the cultural values of familismo/familism and spirituality were related to resilience. In addition, when Mexican farmworkers in this study endorsed higher levels of spirituality, they also endorsed higher levels of well-being. Surprisingly, gender, immigration status, and enculturation were not significantly related to resilience.

Terrestrial plant evolution: structural biology, biochemical function, and diversity of dirigent proteins

Primary Author: Qingyan Meng

Co-Author(s): John R. Cort

Clyde A. Smith

Diana L. Bedgar

Syed G. A. Moinuddin

Laurence B. Davin

Norman G. Lewis

Faculty Sponsor: Norman G. Lewis

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Institute of Biological Chemistry

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Genes encoding dirigent proteins (DPs), a protein class we discovered (1), have biochemical functions that apparently emerged during the evolutionary transition of aquatic plants to a terrestrial environment. DP multi-gene families span liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. The DP biochemical pathway diversity is known thus far in stipulating redox-mediated C-C and C-O bond forming outcomes includes distinct metabolic classes, namely in lignan, lignin, aromatic terpenoid, and pterocarpan biosynthesis. Other potential pathways include stilbenoids and allyl/propenyl phenols. Here we describe the 3D structure of the stereospecific pterocarpan DP, affording (-)-medicarpin. This is done in the context of comparing and contrasting this DP type with the stereo-selective lignan (2) and aromatic terpenoid forming DP’s, and discussing the similarities and differences in their biochemical reaction mechanisms. 1.Davin, L.B., Wang, H.W., Crowell, A.L., Bedgar, D.L., Martin, D.M., Sarkanen, S., and Lewis, N.G. 1997. Stereoselective bimolecular phenoxy radical coupling by an auxiliary (dirigent) protein without an active center. Science 275: 362-366. 2. Kim, K.-W., Smith, C.A., Daily, M.D., Cort, J.R., Davin, L.B., and Lewis, N.G. 2015. Trimeric structure of (+)-pinoresinol forming dirigent protein at 1.95 Å resolution with three isolated active sites. J. Biol. Chem. 290: 1308-1318.

Seeing the past: 3D printing and reconstructions in the history of art

Primary Author: Hallie Meredith

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Most of the ancient statues that we see in museums today are gleaming white. In antiquity, however, this was rarely the case. In addition to temporary adornments, such as garlands of colourful flowers or clothing, statues were often painted to appear as life-like as possible. In Spring 2018, upper-level undergraduates taking a fine arts course, ‘Arts of Ancient Greece and Rome’, researched the original polychromy and (now) missing appendages of ancient marble statues focusing on the 8th century BCE to 8th century CE. Students with a variety of majors were introduced to issues of digital literacy in the form of 3D printing as a potential technological tool with which to approach the humanities. Each undergraduate chose a fragmentary or altered statue from antiquity to research in order to present an evidence-based argument concerning its reconstruction in a presentation to classmates. Students researched comparanda in the form of mosaics, illuminations in manuscripts and additional representations of their chosen piece. With the assistance of Joe Hedges, Assistant Professor in Fine Arts concerning colour mixing, and printing generously provided by the Spark, each student was able to present competing interpretations concerning the original state of their statue. Illustrating their presentation with a restored model of the original, students examined how and why scholars come to differing conclusions concerning the original appearance of ancient sculpture. By integrating 3D printing in the history of art curriculum, students developed a more nuanced understanding of how time has – literally – changed our view of the past.

Sensitivity of morning crop water stress index to soil water availability in apple trees

Primary Author: Abdelmoneim Mohamed

Co-Author(s): Yasin Osroosh

Troy Peters

Travis Bates

Colin Campbell

Francesc Ferrer-Alegre

Faculty Sponsor: Troy Peters

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Irrigated Agriculture Research & Extension Center

Abstract:

A theoretical crop water stress index (CWSI) averaged over morning hours (10:00-11:00 AM), (CWSImo) was compared to conventional CWSI averaged over solar noon hours, midday (1:00-3:00 PM), (CWSImd). Sensitivity analysis was applied to both CWSImo and CWSImd to changes in soil water availability (soil water deficit, SWD, % and soil matric potential, SMP, KPa) at different root zone depths, and to stem water potential (?stem). The linear relationship between SWD and CWSI averaged over morning hours resulted in a good correlation (R2 = 0.49, p < 0.001) compared with the traditional CWSI at midday (R2 = 0.28, p < 0.001). Also, soil water potential and CWSImo were good correlated (R2 = 0.46, P < 0.001), while it was weakly correlated with CWSImd (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). There was a week correlation between soil water content and both CWSImo and CWSImd at depths 76 cm and 102 cm of the root zone. There was no statistically significant relationship between ?stem and both CWSImo and CWSImd. The CWSImo showed high sensitivity to soil water availability that can be used as a good indicator of water status in the root zone profile of apple trees.

Underutilized renewable materials engineered for construction of building envelopes

Primary Author: Mostafa Mohammadabadi

Co-Author(s): Vikram Yadama

Faculty Sponsor: Vikram Yadama

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Composite Materials and Engineering Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Reduction of carbon footprint is one of major environmental concerns among the researchers. Even if forests and the wood they produce have a significant role in carbon sequestration, wildfire escalates this concern remarkably. Better forest management has key role to play in addressing both carbon dioxide emission and wildfire. However, thinning the forests which is an important approach to manage the forests and keep them healthy, yields small-diameter and low-quality timber that needs to be used for higher-value applications to recoup the sustainable forest management costs. This study presents an option to convert these underutilized materials into a value-added construction material. Thin wood strands produced from small-diameter timber are sprayed with phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin and hot-pressed to manufacture a flat wood composite material. Using the same procedure and a matched-die mold, a biaxial corrugated panel is also produced from wood strands. To fabricate the sandwich panels, flat panels as outer layers are bonded to the biaxial corrugated panel as a core. This sandwich panel has a higher structural performance than comparable construction materials with the same applications. Since the cavities of the sandwich panel caused by the 3D geometry of the core are filled with foam, its improved hygrothermal performance is also noticeable. Finite element and theoretical models were developed to evaluate the flexural behavior of the sandwich panel, enabling refinement of the design if necessary for other applications.

Forage resources and nutritional carrying capacity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho

Primary Author: Deborah Monzingo

Co-Author(s): Lisa Shipley

Faculty Sponsor: Lisa Shipley

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of the Environment

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Populations of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) have been declining in parts of Idaho since the 1990’s. Because elk have high ecological, recreational, cultural, and economical value, wildlife and natural resource organizations are seeking to determine the cause of this decline and opportunities for management. One potential cause of elk declines is a reduction of the amount of early-successional habitats that provide abundant, nutritious forages for elk. This reduction is due to wildfire suppression and the changing of timber practices. Therefore, our objective is to examine how the useable forage (i.e., forage that meets their nutritional requirements) amount varies across forest stand age and among different forest habitat types, and to estimate the number of elk that can be sustainably supported. Over two summer field seasons, our team sampled the biomass and measured the nutritional quality of understory vegetation in 361, 0.2-ha plots across the Clearwater Basin in north-central Idaho. We are using these data, coupled with known nutritional requirements and intake rate of elk, to estimate useable biomass and nutritional carrying capacity (number of elk/day/ha that can be supported). We can then compare these metrics across stand age, habitat types, and examine the influence of environmental and stand characteristics on these successional profiles. This research is critical for wildlife managers to develop habitat management strategies to increase elk populations in Idaho’s Clearwater River Basin.

Outcomes of suicide risk assessment and safety planning in a longitudinal mixed mode survey of patients with complex psychiatric disorders

Primary Author: Danna Moore

Co-Author(s): Dan Vakoch

Primary College/Unit: Office of Research

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Social and Economic Sciences Research Center

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Opportunities to study survey response burden of different types is limited. The Study to Promote Innovation in Rural Integrated Telepsychiatry (SPIRIT) is a multi-state multi-health center randomized control trial (RCT) of 1000 patients screened positive for Bipolar Disorder or PTSD. This study uses surveys to measure patient progression though treatment. We hypothesized that the extent of reported suicide ideation would differ across survey modes and overtime. Our goal is to evaluate the frequency of telephone and web survey completion, and the influence of reported suicide ideation and safety planning on longitudinal survey participation for patients with complex psychiatric disorders. For RCT there is a strong need for study retention and maintaining survey responses across waves to effectively measure mental health outcomes. The task of maintaining longitudinal response can be problematic requiring strategies to mitigate the burdens of survey length, the longer-term burden of respondents’ increased awareness of emotional discomfort of sensitive questions, and the reluctance of knowing subsequent future surveys could trigger emotional distress. Mixed mode outcomes are assessed at three points-baseline, 6-months, 12-months. Our results show that more than 68% of study subjects report suicide ideation and that it is important to provide a safety net. We provide results of a novel suicide intervention, and outcomes of mixed mode implementation. Survey safety planning includes taking immediate action to ensure safety. There are too few studies documenting the logistics of carrying out suicide protocols across mixed mode surveys of patients with complex psychiatric disorders.

Development of on-site real-time PCR-based pathogen detection for common potato diseases in North Sinaloa, Mexico

Primary Author: Guadalupe Arlene Mora-Romero

Co-Author(s): Natalia A. Moroz

Kiwamu Tanaka

Faculty Sponsor: Kiwamu Tanaka

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Sinaloa is the most productive agricultural state in Mexico and produces nearly one-third of all vegetables sold in the country. Potato is one of the major crops in Sinaloa. Current practices for potato production rely on applications of large amounts of pesticides for the disease control. However, pesticides are often misused – some chemicals are applied for improper targets and/or with wrong timing in Sinaloa, because many potato diseases are foliage asymptomatic and/or exhibit symptoms easily confused with those caused by other pathogen or abiotic stress. One of the needs for the disease control is correct diagnosis in the early stages of infection cycle. Diagnosis based on the real-time PCR system is the most sensitive, specific and rapid technique. The present study focuses on development of diagnostic protocols including nucleotide extraction, designing of primers and fluorogenic probes, optimization of PCR reaction conditions and data analysis for all common potato pathogens in northern Sinaloa. The aim of this work is to prepare an on-site real-time PCR-based diagnostic manual that will allows regional plant pathologists to perform precise disease diagnosis and eventually minimize chemical application on the fields for securing food safety and to improve quality of potato production. This project is also beneficial for U.S. potato growers and allied industry since the real-time PCR-based diagnosis for some pathogens remains yet undeveloped.

Bacterial flagellin FlgII-28 elicits multiple defense responses in potato

Primary Author: Natalia Moroz

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

A sophisticated immune system allows plants to resist a wide variety of pathogens. The first layer of plant immunity is deployed by recognition of pathogen-associated molecule patterns (PAMPs) and induction of early stress responses. The flagellum is an important virulence factor for pathogenic eubacteria. Flagellin is the major component of flagellum, including Flg22, a short active peptide derived from the most conserved part of the N-terminal region, which is recognized as a PAMP by a specific perception system present in most higher plants. Some bacteria evade the plant recognition system by altering the Flg22 region of flagellin. Instead, a small subset of plants (especially solanaceous plants) can sense these bacteria by recognizing a second region of flagellin termed FlgII-28. The function of FlgII-28 was well documented in tomato plants, but not in potato plants. Here, we investigated the effect of FlgII-28 on several defense responses in potato. Cytosolic Ca2+ elevation is an early defense response upon pathogen infection. We have generated transgenic potato plants expressing aequorin, a non-toxic Ca2+ sensor protein. The result showed that FlgII-28 stimulated strong cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in a dose dependent manner, whereas the response is attenuated when a Ca2+ chelator was added. FlgII28-stimulated cytosolic Ca2+ elevation subsequently promoted downstream defense responses, MAP kinase phosphorylation and transcriptional reprograming of defense-related genes in potato. In addition, we observed that FlgII-28 induces other defense responses, extracellular alkalinization and increased ROS production. Our results demonstrate that FlgII-28 acts as a PAMP to elicit multiple defense responses in potato.

Quantifying the Community Capitals Framework: Strategic application of the Community Assets and Attributes Model

Primary Author: Daniel Mueller

Co-Author(s): Season Hoard

Sanne Rijkhoff

Kelli Roemer

Christina Sanders

Faculty Sponsor: Season Hoard

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Division of Governmental Studies and Services

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Community Capitals Framework (CCF) has become a significant part of the study of community development, and scholars have used this framework to explore numerous avenues of development. In this research, we show that quantification of the CCF’s social assets (human, social, cultural, and political capitals) is important for initial assessment of prospective communities for economic development projects and can provide communities and policy makers with the tools to improve on these essential capitals through strategic interventions. To that end, we have developed and refined a quantitative model of the four social assets, the Community Assets and Attributes Model (CAAM), that measures human, cultural, social, and political capitals. We demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of our model in assessing communities’ strengths and weaknesses in the social elements of the CCF. We present how the model was developed, how we use it to develop strategies to help policy makers and project stakeholders engage with communities, and detail through case studies involving the siting of biorefineries and energy plants how the CAAM is useful to the decisionmaking process for both policy makers and other project stakeholders. By quantifying these social elements of the framework, we hope to make the CCF a more accessible decision-making framework for project stakeholders that helps to focus their attention on social as well as economic elements of the framework and provides a quantitative starting point for deeper qualitative assessments of communities.

Organellomics of plant response to heat and drought stress

Primary Author: Nataliia Naumova

Co-Author(s): Andrei Smertenko

Primary College/Unit :College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Productivity of agricultural systems worldwide suffers from drought and heat. Both stresses devastate yield by promoting synthesis of toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Consequently, reducing ROS production in crops under stress conditions through breeding could reduce yield losses. This option remains unavailable due to the lack of high throughput phenotyping techniques for ROS production. Here, we address this problem using cellular markers of ROS (organellomics). One of such markers could be small organelles peroxisomes. It has been shown that ROS trigger peroxisome proliferation and therefore peroxisome abundance could be used as a proxy of ROS content. In our previous research we developed a technique for measuring peroxisome abundance using fluorescent probe N-BODIPY and demonstrated suitability of this approach for assessing accumulation of ROS. Peroxisomes cooperate with mitochondria in maintaining ROS content in the cells. Thus, mitochondria abundance could also inform on the stress-induced ROS production. However, quantification of mitochondria abundance in plants remains technically challenging. We developed a technique for measuring mitochondria abundance using specific mitochondrial fluorescent probe NAO. We have also screened a chemical library consisting of 240 novel fluorescent compounds using spectrofluorimetry and fluorescence microscopy. Several compounds stained specific structures in tobacco, Arabidopsis, and wheat cells, and could be potentially used for assessing drought and heat stress in plants. N-BODIPY, NAO, and new probes would enable oragellomics approaches for monitoring production of ROS and other stress-induced cellular changes in a high throughput format. These technologies would facilitate breeding crop varieties with low ROS production under heat and drought.

Case studies on building rangeland resilience to climate change in the Pacific Northwest

Primary Author: Shannon Neibergs

Co-Author(s): Sonia Hall

Tip Hudson

Georgine Yorgey

Matt Reeves

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Economic Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Cow-calf operations are the primary users of the 21.6 million acres of rangelands in the Pacific Northwest and will have to adapt to ongoing and future climate change. Management directed toward current rangeland stressors which may be amplified under a changing climate?including fire risk, invasive plants, and droughts?is likely to improve future resilience. And although climate change discussions have become highly politicized, our experience suggests that Pacific Northwest ranchers support “no-regrets” strategies that provide ecological and economic benefits under a variety of future conditions. Our goal is to foster adoption of these strategies by sharing individual success stories. This project builds on a similar case-study approach developed for crop producers and used effectively in the Pacific Northwest: with 19,500 views of 13 videos from 2016-2018, and more than 1600 views of case study documents. Our multi-media case studies profile successful ranchers in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon who are using practices that increase resilience to climate change alongside economic, production, environmental, and other risks. By detailing their experience and insights the case studies encourage other ranchers to consider similar changes. Each case study consists of a brief video and a peer-reviewed written factsheet with descriptions of the rancher’s personal context and motivations; process of innovation; benefits, challenges and solutions to adopting practices. This narrative is paired with easy-to-read sidebars providing key science findings relevant to the practices being discussed. By connecting these insights with key science findings we give ranchers tools to adjust these practices to their particular operational context.

Identification of co-expressed genes following Fusarium solani infection in Pisum sativum

Grant Nelson, Bruce Willamson-Benavides, Amit Dhingra

Primary Author: Grant Nelson

Faculty Sponsor: Amit Dhingra

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Pathogen-related crop losses represent a significant detriment to crop production in the United States. Fusarium solani is one of the most common causes of root rot in plants, and damages significant portions of a wide variety of commercial crops every year. A spectrum of tolerance to this disease has been observed in several lines of Pisum sativum though little is understood about the genetic mechanisms that generate resistance in pea. To further characterize genetic interactions with this pathogen, we are conducting RNA analysis and observing co-expression of genes in plants challenged with the pathogen. To characterize the transcriptomic response, RNA has been isolated and expression levels identified for a wide variety of genes associated with tolerant and susceptible lines. However, expression levels alone do not provide a comprehensive picture of gene interaction. Co-expression matrices have been developed to observe interactions among a variety of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). This data allows for a developmental transcriptomic snapshot of how Pisum sativum responds to challenge by Fusarium solani. A reference transcriptome was generated from RNAseq data. This assembly can then be utilized for mapping of reads to provide further information on expression. Our lab has developed an assembly based on transcriptome data from susceptible and tolerant pea lines to address this problem. With the construction of this transcriptome expression data can be derived and analyzed in a co-expression matrix. This data can then demonstrate key relationships between differentially expressed genes.

Libraries and research in Buffy the Vampire Slayer

Primary Author: Erica Nicol

Primary College/Unit: Libraries

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Libraries

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Many university students struggle with research and become frustrated when their first attempts at locating information in physical or online library spaces or even on the wider web do not go as expected. This disconnect between student expectations of research and the actual research process can create barriers to information literacy, negatively affect student learning, contribute to library anxiety, and make students apprehensive of research. Knowing what expectations students have for research and libraries, and how their expectations and attitudes about research have been shaped and influenced, can be useful for librarians and instructors who want to encourage student research and promote information literacy. This research looks to popular culture, and specifically to Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BtVS) to identify and analyze representations of research and libraries. Conducting textual analysis using the web-based tool Voyant, in combination with close readings/viewings, this study identifies themes about research in BtVS that can shed light on students’ expectations of research and library use. While further research into how common these themes are in current popular media is needed, themes about research in BtVS indicate strategies librarians and instructors can use to address expectations and attitudes about research and libraries in order to help students overcome research roadblocks and frustrations.

Genetic estimation of straw residue decomposition in winter wheat

Primary Author: Nathan Nielsen

Co-Author(s): Arron Carter

Tami Stubbs

Faculty Sponsor: Arron Carter

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

No-till farming is an excellent option to minimize soil erosion. However, adoption of no-till farming in Eastern Washington has been slow due to difficulties of managing straw residue in no-till systems. We hypothesize that a genome-wide association study (GWAS) will identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can assist in understanding the genetic loci associated with straw decomposition. The straw from a panel of 468 soft white winter wheat cultivars in the Pacific Northwest was harvested over two years at three locations throughout Eastern Washington. The samples were analyzed for several decomposition constituents, including NDF, ADF, ADL, cellulose, and hemicellulose using a wet chemistry procedure whereas carbon and nitrogen were determined using dry combustion. This panel was genotyped using the 90K Illumina SNP chip and a GWAS was conducted using FarmCPU implemented in the statistical program R. SNPs significantly associated with straw breakdown characteristics were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6A, 6B, and 7D. ADF was the most useful trait for identifying chromosomal loci of interest. IWB43355 on chromosome 4B was associated with both ADF and NDF, whereas IWB80987 on chromosome 5B was associated with both ADF and cellulose. On chromosome 6B, IWB28178 (associated with ADF) and IWB9377 (associated with hemicellulose) were located within 4 cM of each other. Nevertheless, the distribution of the SNPs across chromosomes demonstrates the genetic complexity of these straw breakdown constituents. Selection for straw breakdown characteristics may be better served using genomic selection rather than a GWAS approach.

Adaptive cooperative control of multi-agent systems

Primary Author: Donya Nojavanzadeh

Faculty Sponsor: Ali Saberi

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

My research and collaborative work address cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The problem of synchronization among agents in a multi-agent system has received substantial attention in recent years, because of its potential applications in cooperative control of autonomous vehicles, distributed sensor network, swarming and flocking and others. The objective of synchronization is to secure an asymptotic agreement on a common state or output trajectory through decentralized control protocols. The case where the full state is shared over the network will be referred to as full-state coupling. If only part of the state is shared over the network, we refer to it as partial-state coupling. An innovative contribution of my work is to avoid using the knowledge of the communication networks using adaptive method. In our adaptive project, we studied regulated state synchronization for homogeneous MAS where the objective is that the state of each agent follows a reference trajectory generated by a so-called exosystem. The main objective is to design adaptive protocol which solves this problem without any a priori knowledge about the communication network. A subset of the nodes obtains information about the exosystem and our protocol does not require any a priori information as long as each agent is connected to an agent from this subset. Furthermore, our communication network is switching which has not been studied in the literature so far. We have applied the adaptive cooperative controller to power systems for secondary voltage control of distributed generators and the results showed the feasibility of our controller.

The WSU Buildings and Landscapes site: Creating a gateway to our shared history

Primary Author: Mark O’English

Co-Author(s): Andrew Gillreath-Brown

Phil Gruen

Jeff Sanders

Primary College/Unit: Libraries

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The WSU Buildings and Landscapes website (http://cdsc.libraries.wsu.edu/scalar/wsu-buildings-landscapes/) is an open-ended project designed to allow WSU’s Historic Preservation Committee to share the history of the college’s built environment and landscapes. Over the course of the project, funded through two WSU-based graduate student fellowships, a variety of platforms were evaluated for effectiveness in publication, customizability, and digital curation. Once a platform, Scalar, was selected, metadata schemas and standards were designed based on the projected audiences for the project and the information to be published. The site structure was designed to allow not just text-based navigation and searching, but the incorporation of a map-based gateway, building timelines, and the capability to link common themes, architectural elements, and other details across multiple campus features. Building information was selected from WSU Historic Preservation Committee documentation and from other historical works created by and about the university, and a myriad of historical visual images, primarily from WSU’s Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, were harvested with their descriptive metadata and incorporated into the site. The site went live in December, 2018, and is designed with multiple audiences in mind, from campus tourists to dedicated and enthusiastic alumni to serious researchers. While templates, imagery, and very basic information are set up for over 180 campus structures and features so far, to date about 20 buildings are considered “finished,” and work remains to be done on best practices for visitor submissions. Workflows are in place to continue the regular expansion and enhancement of the project.

Homolog models help localize amino acid residues potentially involved in virus assembly and host defense suppression

Primary Author: Cristian Olaya

Co-Author(s): Hanu Pappu

Faculty Sponsor: Hanu Pappu

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Peribunyaviridae) cause significant losses to a wide range of crops worldwide. Identification and characterization of specific sequences and motifs that are critical for virus infection and pathogenicity could provide useful insights and targets for engineering virus resistance that is potentially both broad spectrum and durable. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), was used to better understand the structure-function relationships of the nucleocapsid gene (N), and the silencing suppressor gene (NSs). Using a global collection of tospoviral sequences, we identified nine amino acid residues in the N protein among 31 known tospoviral species, and ten amino acid residues in NSs protein among 27 tospoviral species that were conserved across the. We used state of the art 3D modeling algorithms, to predict the secondary and tertiary structures of the N and the NSs proteins. For the N protein, all three algorithms gave nearly identical tertiary models. Three residues were consistently located in the coil in all the models. For NSs protein models, there was no agreement among the three algorithms. However, with respect to the localization of the conserved motifs, G18 was consistently located in coil, while H115 was localized in the coil in three models. This is the first report of predicting the 3D structure of any tospoviral NSs protein and revealed a consistent location for two of ten conserved residues. Results allowed to hypothesize the basis for further work on the structure-function relationships of tospoviral proteins and could be useful in developing novel virus control strategies.

Smart building energy management using nonlinear economic model predictive control

Primary Author: Mohammad Ostadijafari

Co-Author(s): Anamika Dubey

Faculty Sponsor: Anamika Dubey

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is responsible for a significant proportion of the building’s total energy consumption. The optimization of the building energy consumption while satisfying the occupants’ comfort requirements requires an accurate model for thermal building loads and advance control methods for the HVAC system. In literature, model predictive control (MPC) for both tracking a desired set-point and for economic optimization (using economic model predictive control/EMPC) has been employed to solve this problem. Building thermal model and consequently HVAC system model is nonlinear. Assuming the temperature can vary in a short range, most of current literatures, propose MPC-based control algorithm based on Jacobian linearized model to co-schedule the HVAC system control. Unfortunately, the Jacobian linearization approach is not valid when the desired room temperature obtained from the optimization problem vary significantly at different time-steps. This is usually the case when the building is not occupied for certain time of the day and can be overheated or overcooled to achieve the desired economic objective. The objective of this work is to develop a price-sensitive operational model for building’s HVAC systems while considering inflexible loads and other distributed energy resources (DERs) and battery storage for the buildings. A Nonlinear Economic Model Predictive Controller (NL-EMPC) is presented to minimize the net cost of energy usage by building’s HVAC system while satisfying the comfort-level of building’s occupants. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller leads to a reduction in the net-cost of electricity usage while satisfying building occupants’ comfort-level.

Changes of photoprotection strategies under drought at different life stages in Craterostigma pumilum

Primary Author: Hui Min Oung

Faculty Sponsor: Helmut Kirchhoff

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Resurrection plants are known for their extraordinary drought tolerance. Craterostigma pumilum is a homoiochlorophyllous type of resurrection plant that can survive relative water contents (RWC) below 10% for months, retaining most of their photosynthetic proteins and chlorophyll when dehydrated. This ability provides a fast recovery after re-watering. However, keeping the photosynthetic proteins and chlorophyll under drought stress may accelerate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that finally leads to cell death. Thus, understanding how C. pumilum minimizes ROS production from photosynthetic side reactions during dehydration can help us improve resilience to drought in crop plants. Our research reveals that C. pumilum employs different photoprotection strategies which are developmentally dependent. Besides the global protection mechanisms in C. pumilum, e.g., sucrose accumulation, the increase of xanthophyll pool size, and de-epoxidation rate during dehydration, we found that young plants (<4 months old) showed a higher linear electron flux than old plants (> 5 months old) at 60-100% RWC. Moreover, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, proton motive force across thylakoid, and photosystem I limitation indicate differential photoprotective responses in young and old plants when the RWC dropped below 60%. The composition of PSII and cytochrome b6f subunits also showed different changes during dehydration in these two development stages. In addition, the ultrastructure of thylakoids was found to be different, which electron dense compounds accumulated more in the lumen of old plants. Altogether, it is concluded that young and old resurrection plants employ different photoprotective mechanisms in C. pumilum under drought stress.

Local buckling analysis of periodic sinusoidal corrugated panels under uniaxial compression

Primary Author: Sachinthani Pathirana

Co-Author(s): Pizhong Qiao

Faculty Sponsor: Pizhong Qiao

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

This work aims to investigate the critical local buckling of simply supported sinusoidal panels subjected to uniaxial compression using an energy method. Being increasingly and innovatively used in many applications in civil, naval and aerospace engineering, these corrugated panels are especially popular due to their high stiffness to weight ratio and increased out-of-plane rigidities. Failure of such thin-walled panels occurs mainly in buckling rather than material failure; thus, it leads to the importance of the study of buckling failure. Conventional methods are limited when analyzing these panels in local buckling because of its unique geometries. Hence, a solution is developed to predict the local buckling based on classical shell theory with a unit cell approach, and it shows excellent correlation with the results based on the numerical finite element analysis. A further parametric study is conducted to explore the effects of the thickness, aspect ratio, and the corrugated amplitude of the panel on buckling. It is revealed that the derived solution can accurately capture the local buckling behavior at high thicknesses, any aspect ratios, and high corrugated amplitudes. Additionally, the effects of different material properties on the buckling behavior are explored, resulting in novel discoveries of material property tailoring. The proposed semi-analytical solution can be confidently used to aid in the efficient and accurate design analysis and optimization of corrugated panels.

Gaining a functional understanding of the nuclear-encoded genetic space of the chloroplast using a gene family targeting amirna library in Arabidopsis thaliana

Primary Author: Anna Pratt

Faculty Sponsor: Henning Kunz

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Biological Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The chloroplast plays a central role in plant cell function; despite this, the majority of proteins active in the chloroplast have yet to be studied. A high-throughput screening method that efficiently targets the entire chloroplast proteome would allow for work that elucidates the complex network of gene expression and physiological function within the chloroplast. Here, I describe a mechanism for this methodology using an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) library in a large-scale mutagenesis screen, coupled with phenotypic analysis, which allows for rapid generation of mutants with identifiable phenotypes within the first generation. This amiRNA library causes efficient and simultaneous knock-down of entire gene families from a single expression construct, bypassing the problem of functional redundancy, while generating phenotypes with a single transgenic event. Further, we propose the use of this amiRNA library to identify genes responsible for Ca2+ flux within the chloroplast.

Modification of ZSM-5 zeolites for improving aromatic hydrocarbons production in co-fed biomass pyrolysis with waste plastic

Primary Author: Moriko Qian

Co-Author(s): Hanwu Lei

Elmar Villota

Faculty Sponsor: Hanwu Lei

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Biological Systems Engineering

Campus: Tri-Cities

Abstract:

Zeolite is a very effective catalyst in catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by converting the oxygenated intermediates directly into aromatic hydrocarbons as renewable petrochemicals. However, the insufficient hydrogen pool of biomass as feedstock in pyrolysis leads to rapid catalyst deactivation, which is caused by the formation of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst surface from polymerization and polycondensation reactions. The co-feeding of common waste plastic materials such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with Douglus fir saw dust was conducted using hierarchical ZSM-5 prepared by desilication. Desilication of parent ZSM-5 with different Si/Al ratios in sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions contributed to the increase of surface area as well as the formation of secondary mesopores in the original microporous system. The additional mesoporosity eases the accessibility of bulky intermediates to the active sites inside the pore structures while the acidity and aromatization capacity of the original HZSM-5 is preserved. Compared to the parent zeolites, the hierarchical zeolites showed better catalytic performances due to the presence of larger pore openings and better diffusion of reactants with a wider range of molecular sizes. Carbon yields of aromatic hydrocarbons were enhanced from co-feeding of lignocellulosic biomass with plastics in CFP.

Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) as a treatment for hyperalgesia associated with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice

Primary Author: Raymond Quock

Co-Author(s): Abigail Brewer

Donald Shirachi

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Research in our laboratory has shown that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is effective in suppressing physical signs of withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice [Nicoara et al., Brain Res. 1648:434-7, 2016]. Another sign of opioid withdrawal is increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia), which may contribute to continued drug-seeking behavior [Carcoba et al., J. Addict. Dis. 30:258-270, 2012]. This study evaluated the efficacy of HBO2 in decreasing hyperalgesia caused by opioid withdrawal in an animal model of dependence. Opioid dependence was induced in male and female NIH Swiss mice by twice-daily injections of escalating doses of morphine (50-125 mg/kg) for four consecutive days; on day 5, they were given a final injection of 125 mg/kg morphine. Seven hours later, mice were treated for 30 min with HBO2 at 3.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA). One hour later, withdrawal was precipitated by an injection of 1.0 mg/kg naloxone. Pain response was assessed using tail withdrawal, hot plate and paw pressure tests every 10 min or 30 min after naloxone. Baseline levels of nociception for each endpoint were taken prior to induction of morphine dependence. Male and female animals exhibited hyperalgesia in the hot plate and paw pressure tests but not the tail withdrawal test. In male mice, HBO2 significantly decreased the amount of hyperalgesia in the hot plate and paw pressure tests. In female mice, HBO2 significantly decreased hyperalgesia in the paw pressure test. These preliminary results show that reduction of hyperalgesia is another beneficial effect of HBO2 in treatment of opioid withdrawal and warrant further investigation.

Modeling inland container terminal in the Pacific Northwest

Primary Author: Mohammad Maksudur Rahman

Co-Author(s): You Zhou

Eric Jessup

Faculty Sponsor: Eric Jessup

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

There has been a persistent challenge amongst small to mid-size agricultural shippers in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) accessing available empty containers for outbound, export shipments. One major reason is that a significant proportion of inbound containers through Ports of Seattle and Tacoma is directly shipped to inland markets such as Chicago, IL. This involves some increased empty container repositioning costs in order to make them available for PNW agricultural export shippers. Given constrained geography, it is also occurring at a time when highway congestion to/from the ports is becoming extremely costly for trucks seeking to access port terminals for obtaining empty containers and shipping loaded containers. To address the issue, this research proposes a development of inland port at Richland, WA, some 200 miles east of Seattle, WA. We build a network model of container freight demand to test the validity. Three entities are included in the model. Agricultural shippers seek empty containers for exporting. Ocean shipping lines own the containers and provide transportation services by sea. Class I railroads transport empty containers from Chicago to PNW. With adequate and consistent commodity volumes from PNW Agricultural shippers, the results indicate that the utilization of inland port can increase the availability of empty containers in PNW and decrease the total costs of agricultural shippers. The model is also widely applicable to various scenarios related to inland port developments in other regions.

Power Five conference? Does it really matter?: A comparison between power five conference and mid-major conference on Psychic Income

Primary Author: Yong Chae Rhee

Co-Author(s): Tae Ho Kim

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Sport marketers are interested in searching for strategies to influence spectator behavior. Studies have shown that spectators’ attachment to player, coach, community, university, level of sport, or sport itself led to various fan behavior based on the level of conferences in college sports. In addition, growing attention focuses on the Psychic Income of spectators. Psychic Income is defined as “emotional and psychological benefit residents perceive they receive and, even though they do not physically attend sports events and are not involved in organizing them”. We hypothesize that Psychic Income would mediate the relationship between Point of Attachment and Fan Behavior. The purpose of current research is to compare three universities from different size conferences to see how they react to the proposed model, which posits Psychic Income (i.e., collective self-esteem, excitement, social bonding, emotional involvement, and pride towards university) mediates the relationship between Point of Attachment (i.e., player, team, coach, sport (basketball), and university) and Behavior Intention (i.e., word-of-mouth and attendance behavior). 633 responses were collected from three different universities in the U.S. including one from power five conferences (A) and two from mid-major conferences (B and C). The results suggested that University B and C (mid-major conference schools) showed a full mediation of PI on the relationship between POA and BI. On the other hand, university A (power five conference school) did not show an indirect effect of PI on the relationship between POA and BI.

Student use and perceptions of online lecture recordings

Primary Author: Sian Ritchie

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Biological Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Over 50% of WSU undergraduates have responsibilities outside their academics, for example jobs and family obligations. The availability of resources online is helpful for this population when their commitments mean they cannot attend class. These days students are used to the digital environment, and a range of material can be made available online, for example readings, homework quizzes, lecture slides, and recorded lectures. This study looks at the use of online lecture recordings as supplemental material in two different types of class, one a 100-level non-major’s general education science class, and one a rigorous upper division major’s science class. The students were surveyed to determine how often they made use of this resource, what reasons they watched, how they used them, and what perceived advantage they provided. Both populations were similar in the features they found useful, for example approximately 80% of both groups appreciate the ability to pause and re-watch particular sections. But there were also differences in the watching patterns and reasons for watching: more students watched more of the recordings in the upper division class, and more of these students watched to help understand the complex material of the class.

EcoArts on the Palouse: A Collaboration in Science, Art, and Wild Edge Spaces

Primary Author: Linda Russo

Co-Author(s): Kayla Wakulich

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

EcoArts on the Palouse: A Collaboration in Science, Art, and Wild Edge Spaces By Linda Russo While the Palouse is infamous for its gorgeous undulant hills of wheat and pulses, it is also dotted with ecological niches. What if we focus on these wild “edge spaces” and their ecosystems – whether prairie, pond, forest, or riparian – and call out the details of interspecies life? What new connections would emerge, and how would they influence our sense of this landscape and its future? An interdisciplinary endeavor, Eco-Arts on the Palouse invites many ways of knowing about places and our relation to them – scientifically-informed, experiential, artful – to create a new lens onto the Palouse bioregion. Throughout 2018, collaborators the ecological science (Kayla Wakulich, Mallory Bedwell, Chris Duke) wrote up site data that was tagged to a digital map and shared with poets and healing and visual artists (Annie Cunningham, Aletha Lynn, Michael McGriff, Gerri Sayler, John Walton, Kate Watts), who created site-based works. Currently in progress (WSU Undergrads Coleman Davis, Emily Heston, Ellen MacNary, Hannah Utter, and Anna Young), EcoArtsonthePalouse.com, as a form of what scholar Cathy Fitzgerald calls Eco-social art, will “foster cycles of multi-constituent translation, reflection and action, across lifeworlds, art, science and other socio-political domains to progress new life-sustaining knowledge.”* * The Ecological Turn: Living Well with forests to explain eco-social art practices. Dissertation, National University of Ireland, 2018

Conferring immunogenicity with enzyme-directed immunostimulants

Primary Author: Austin Ryan

Faculty Sponsor: Rock Mancini

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Principal Topic: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer remains an elusive drug target largely due to upregulation of efflux proteins which help protect the cancer cells against chemical threats. Our group has previously leveraged drug efflux from MDR cancer to activate an anticancer immune response from nearby immune cells in a process termed bystander assisted immunotherapy (BAIT). In this work, a small library of enzyme-directed pro-immunostimulants has been synthesized to further develop this novel immunotherapy. This chemical library has been designed to target both intracellular and extracellular enzymes upregulated by cancer to probe the significance of target enzyme location in BAIT. Method: A nine-step, modular synthesis has been developed to build a small library of ß-galactosidase, a-mannosidase, and ß-glucuronidase directed immunostimulants. Immune cell activation by these compounds is monitored using a colorimetric RAW-Blue cell assay. Co-culture cell assays using RAW-Blue/4T1-Luciferase breast cancer cells are used to monitor pro-immunostimulant conversion and immune cell activation over time. LC-MS and UV/Vis are used to study the kinetics of pro-immunostimulant degradation by 4T1 cells using exogenous enzyme as a positive control. Results/Implications: This work will lend insight into the advantages associated with targeting different enzymes implicated in cancer metabolism. Preliminary in vitro experiments show that these compounds feature abrogated immunogenicity until incubation with cancer cells. Conversion of these compounds by MDR cancer cells to active immunostimulant has been demonstrated. A lead compound from this library will be carried forward through to in vivo experiments in mice to investigate the ability of these compounds to shrink solid tumors.

Analysis and validation of PV penetration impacts on transmission system using T&D co-simulation

Primary Author: Rabayet Sadnan

Faculty Sponsor: Anamika Dubey

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Abstract – Principal Topic – With the growing penetrations of distributed energy resources (DERs), it is imperative to evaluate their impacts on transmission system operations. In this project, an iteratively coupled transmission and distribution (T&D) co-simulation framework is employed to study the impacts of increasing penetrations of distribution-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems on transmission system voltages. Method – The co-simulation framework introduces iterative coupling and unbalanced transmission system analysis that help accurately replicate the standalone T&D system results without resorting to the computational challenge of developing large-scale standalone T&D models. For steady state case, the integrated T&D systems are evaluated for multiple PV deployment scenarios based on randomly generated PV locations and sizes. For time series model, three different types of variabilities of PV’s generation has been used. For each variability, 1-hour simulation has been done. A test system is simulated using IEEE-9 bus transmission system model integrated at each load point with three EPRI’s Ckt-24 distribution feeder models. The results are thoroughly validated using a standalone T&D system model simulated in OpenDSS. Results/Implications – With the increment of PVs, the voltage at PCC should increase. But due to the nature of IEEE 9 bus transmission system, the voltage behaves differently. Also, the time series model shows the impact of PVs and unbalance, which cannot be predicted without the tightly coupled T&D system. Co-simulation platform eases the computational challenges and can replace the standalone system for studying tightly coupled T&D system.

Acute total sleep deprivation impairs the ability to manage response conflict

Primary Author: Rimaz Salih

Co-Author(s): Anthony Stenson

Darian Sidebottom

John M. Hinson

Paul Whitney

Hans Van Dongen

Devon Hansen

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Introduction: The attention network task (ANT) is a computer task that measures the ability to use an alerting cue to detect a stimulus (alerting effect), use a cue to shift the location of visual attention (orienting effect), and manage response conflict (conflict effect). Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has been shown to negatively affect cognitive functions, including distinct aspects of attention. We measured performance on the ANT during TSD to assess the impact of TSD on attentional functioning. Methods: 14 healthy adults (ages 21-39; 7 females) completed a 4-day/3-night in-laboratory study. After a baseline day (9-hour sleep opportunity), subjects underwent 39 hours of TSD, followed by a recovery day (9-hour sleep opportunity). The ANT was administered at 09:00 on 3 successive days: during baseline, during TSD (26 hours awake), and after recovery sleep. Results: Mixed-effects ANOVA revealed marked impairment in the conflict effect during TSD (F2, 26=4.74, P=0.018). The alerting and orienting effects were not significantly affected by TSD (P=0.78). Conclusion: During TSD, subjects maintained the ability to detect a stimulus and shift visual attention in response to cues. However, sleep-deprived subjects had considerable difficulty managing response conflict. This finding is consistent with recent evidence that sleep deprivation causes profound deficits in attentional flexibility. Research supported by Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

Multiple views: Developing a multi-disciplinary approach to energy-efficient housing for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe

Primary Author: Michael Sanchez

Co-Author(s): Robert Krikac

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Rural Communities Design Initiative (RCDI), a multi-disciplinary team of students and faculty in the School of Design and Construction (SDC) at WSU, developed through an interactive community-driven design approach, site feasibility studies for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe (SSIT) near Darrington, Washington. Next steps in this iterative process are to explore the methodologies needed in the investigation of energy-efficient housing design as well as the type of design team required to address the issue in an integrative manner. This poster documents the methods used to assemble this team and has been funded through a seed grant from the Integrated Design + Construction Lab (ID+CL) at WSU. Programmatic information from previous community workshops will guide the investigation of new housing by considering multiple built environment alternatives. Research methods utilizing ethnographic studies, surveys and focus groups, were and will continue to be used to observe and document the tribal members’ built environmental needs. Additionally, case studies and evaluations may be utilized to survey approaches to energy-efficient housing used by other northwest tribes. Digital models as well as full-scale energy-efficient working models will test the effectiveness of different approaches and estimate future reductions in energy consumption. These investigations will build upon relationships internal and external to the university with the intent of working with design-build organizations for site development and housing construction. The results will also be used to submit for additional grant funding from external agencies.

Oh the irony: The role of iron in Coxiella burnetii replication and viability

Primary Author: Savannah Sanchez

Faculty Sponsor: Anders Omsland, Ph.D.

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Veterinary Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Query (Q) fever in humans, is a highly infectious bacterium capable of establishing both hepatitis and endocarditis. While exhibiting tropism for phagocytic cells, C. burnetii is capable of infecting a broad range of eukaryotic cell types within which the bacterium replicates exclusively in a host-derived compartment referred to as the Coxiella Containing Vacuole (CCV). CCV biogenesis is dependent on C. burnetii secretion of Type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector molecules without which the bacterium is unable to replicate intracellularly and/or exhibit virulence. In natural infections, C. burnetii colonizes organs directly related to iron storage and recycling (e.g., the liver and splenic red pulp), suggesting a demand for iron, a micronutrient previously reported to have a limited role in C. burnetii virulence regulation. While genome sequence analysis suggests C. burnetii has a limited capacity to acquire iron via siderophores or uptake systems for iron-containing molecules, the C. burnetii genome does encode the ferrous iron uptake transporter FeoAB suggesting that molecular iron is the natural iron source for C. burnetii. In this study, the role of iron in C. burnetii replication was re-assessed using axenic (host cell-free) media. We show that C. burnetii requires physiologically high levels of iron (i.e., in excess of 5 µM) to initiate replication under axenic conditions and loses viability within 3 days upon iron starvation. Thus, contrary to the current dogma, iron is essential for C. burnetii replication, viability and therefore virulence.

daughter of something

Primary Author: June Sanders

Faculty Sponsor: Squeak Meisel

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

This current body of work is an ongoing ? and often in flux ? collection of images that delve into ideas of trans-futurism, reimaginings of family, home, and self, and the relationships between bodes and the natural and cultural landscapes surrounding them. I cannot claim this work to contain any sort of universal truths or representation. At most, it may serve as a blend of personal narrative, political concerns, and aesthetic values. At the least, it may serve as a document ? rooted in the vernacular of photography and a quasi-archive. In some ways this work is about the possibility for embodiment; a re-imagining of past, present, and future selves. In other ways it is about the spaces between home and everything else. But before anything, It is about poetics. About a way of looking, a way of seeing, and a way of moving through the world. If we are to define space by the way we move through it, in some combination of words or images, then to arrive at any number of didactic descriptions is to deny it (and our selves) it’s expansive quality. In the realm of the photograph, a relationship or body or scene may live as ambiguously as the photo itself. Not any one bit of evidence or fact, but instead a truthful lie. One that drives the possible. Or sometimes, impossible. In other words, this work is about gender; dirt; expansions; home.

Using physiological traits for indirect selection and genome-wide association analysis of grain yield under drought stress in a spring-wheat nested association mapping population

Primary Author: Karansher Sandhu

Faculty Sponsor: Arron Carter

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The US Pacific Northwest (PNW) is characterized by high latitude and Mediterranean climate where wheat is usually grown under rainfed conditions and often subjected to drought stress. The use of physiological approaches in breeding for drought tolerance and yield stability has been considered superior over conventional breeding methods. The goal of this research was to determine phenotypic association of physiological traits with yield and to identify genomic regions linked to yield in a genome-wide association study. A panel of 650 recombinant inbred lines spring-wheat nested association mapping (NAM) population was evaluated for grain yield, water-use efficiency, plant water status, plant morphology, and spectral reflectance indices (SRIs) for three years (2014-16). Most of the physiological traits had a higher broad-sense heritability than yield and over half of them were moderately to highly correlated with yield. The model for predicting grain yield was developed by using BLUPs (best linear unbiased predictors) for six traits which explained 35 % variation in grain yield. Using 14,605 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), 37 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were found to be associated with grain yield across two or three environments. Overall, this study highlights the potential use of physiological traits to improve selection efficiency and yield stability under rainfed conditions and identifies chromosomal regions that contribute to yield and drought tolerance in PNW spring wheat.

Machine learning models of Monarch butterfly breeding in Palouse Prairie

Primary Author: Rod Sayler

Co-Author(s): Erim Gomez

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of the Environment

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Monarch butterfly populations have been declining dramatically in North America, especially in the western U.S. where wintering populations have recently dropped by 86% to historic low levels. From 2016-18 we studied Monarch butterflies breeding in Palouse Prairie habitats and described environmental factors associated with the use of native milkweed plants by egg-laying females. Our working hypothesis was that egg-laying females would select milkweed patches and individual plants with features potentially associated with higher survival of caterpillars. We surveyed 3,025 plants in 40 milkweed patches to determine the occurrence of herbivory by monarch caterpillars and describe ecological factors related to plant use. We measured 21 variables related to size, growth, phenology, and landscape context of 722 individual milkweed plants of which 72 plants had evidence of caterpillar herbivory. We used machine-learning statistical techniques (e.g., bootstrap forest; boosted tree; neural networks) to model relationships among environmental variables predicting the presence or absence of monarch caterpillar herbivory on individual milkweed plants. Egg-laying females appeared to select host plants based on a combination of patch and landscape features, as well as location and quality of individual plants within milkweed patches. Probability of caterpillar herbivory was higher in clusters of smaller milkweed patches with higher stem densities and on robustly-growing plants in cultivated landscapes. Unfortunately, the combination of butterfly migration patterns and our models of regional milkweed ecology suggests that Palouse Prairie is not high quality habitat for breeding Monarch butterflies.

Blueprints for success, emergence of gene duplication in complex adaptive systems

Primary Author: Samir Sbai

Faculty Sponsor: Behrooz A. Shirazi

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

We consider the effects of gene duplication on a colony of artificial agents capable of genetic evolution. We confirm that there is a selection pressure to acquire the genetic trait of duplicated genes. We show that gene duplication is an indicator of genetic emergent properties. In this paper, we review the genetic dynamics that have emerged in our system including genetic drift, and gene duplication. We conclude that emergence of gene duplication in agents is necessary to provide genetic redundancy, allowing agents to be less effected by negative mutations.

Electronic tongue and consumer sensory evaluation of spicy paneer cheese

Primary Author: CourtneySchlossareck

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Carolyn Ross

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Evaluating sensory properties of spicy foods can be challenging due to how quickly individuals experience fatigue. Analytical methods, such as HPLC quantification of the spicy compound capsaicin, are accurate. However, they may not always be interchangeable with perception of spiciness by consumers. The electronic tongue (e-tongue) offers a unique opportunity to simulate human perception of capsaicin pungency with an analytical method. This study evaluated consumer’s ability and the e-tongue to discriminate among paneer cheese samples containing different levels of capsaicin (1.875, 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 ppm). Over two days, using a blocked design to minimize fatigue, consumers (n=110) evaluated samples using a difference from control sensory test. Consumers successfully distinguished the spicy paneer sample from the control (o ppm) at 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 ppm (p<0.05). Differences were found among sample 3.75, 7.5, and 15 ppm (p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found between control and 1.875 ppm or between paneer containing 15 and 30 ppm. While these high and low concentrations were challenging for consumers, the e-tongue resulted in a high degree of discrimination of 93% among all samples. On the PCA plot created by the e-tongue, PC1 explained 85.6% of the variability and was associated with spicy, sweet, salty, sour, and umami sensors. PC2 explained 7.96% and was associated with the bitter and metallic sensors. The 3.75 and 15 ppm samples were defined by PC1 while PC2 was effective at separating 1.875 and 30 ppm samples.

Rough Wind/Smooth Wind

Primary Author: Shannon Scott

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Music

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Scott/Garrison Duo, Shannon Scott (WSU Assistant Professor) and Leonard Garrison (University of Idaho Full Professor) commissioned a new composition, gave performances nationwide, and recorded their fourth CD, Rough Wind/Smooth Wind, containing repertoire previously unrecorded or not easily available. Composer Eric Mandat wrote Togetherness, a duet for flute/piccolo and clarinet/E-flat clarinet. The first movement, “Profound”, is an exploration of mixed timbres utilizing multiphonics, which are split tones containing several pitches. Movement two, “Quirky”, is scored for piccolo and E-flat clarinet, the highest-pitched members of the flute and clarinet family, providing a charming and unusual addition to the repertoire. “Driving”, movement three, is twisting, fast-paced and very technically challenging for the performers. Recording took place in WSU’s state of the art recording studio with the outstanding assistance of Dave Bjur, WSU’s recording engineer. Sessions took place in early February and mid-March. Editing was competed in May 2018 and involved the performers and the living composers. The CD Rough Wind/Smooth Wind (Albany Records Troy 1742), was released in July 2018. The CD has been submitted to all the journals listed in the goals and objectives. An interview and positive reviews are already published by Fanfare Magazine and American Record Guide, and a review is forthcoming in The Flutist Quarterly. Future implications of this project are the increase in repertoire for flute/clarinet duos and the opportunity for flute/clarinet duos to hear repertoire that until now was not recorded. This will promote excellent repertoire to the growing number of flute/clarinet chamber ensembles.

How grapevines move water from wet to dry soil

Primary Author: Nataliya Shcherbatyuk

Co-Author(s): Markus Keller

Faculty Sponsor: Markus Keller

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Grapevines can transport water from roots in wet soil to roots in dry soil. The objectives of this research are: to determine the pathway of water transport from wet areas to dry areas in the soil; and to determine what, if any, contribution the phloem makes in this water transport. Our hypothesis is that water redistribution from wet to dry roots in grapevines is in part due to water movement to the leaves via the xylem and recycling from the leaves to the roots via the phloem. This study is using deuterium-labeled “heavy” water (2H2O) to track water flow. Own-rooted Merlot grapevines were planted in pots split three-ways. One of the three compartments is irrigated and the other two are left to dry. The trunk in one of the dry compartments is girdled and the other one is left intact to distinguish xylem and phloem water movement (girdling interrupts phloem transport). The results confirm our hypothesis. They show deuterium enrichment in both xylem and phloem sap. Moreover, the deuterium enrichment is higher in root tissues collected from the intact section compared with samples from the girdled section. This indicates that the phloem moves water from leaves to dry roots.

Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo analysis of phosphonate analogues of lanthionine ketimine: development of small molecule treatments for neurological disorders

Primary Author: Dunxin Shen

Faculty Sponsor: Travis T. Denton

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Lanthionine ketimine (LK) is a natural amino acid metabolite found at low concentrations in mammalian brain tissue. LK, and its synthetic ethyl ester derivative, LKE, have potent neuroprotective, neurotrophic and anti-neuroinflammatory properties and have been shown to increase autophagy in neurons and glia. LKE shows benefits in diverse preclinical models of Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Batten disease, glioma, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and stroke. Using LK and LKE as lead compounds, we have recently synthesized a series of (R)-2-butyl-3-phosphono-1-thia-4-aza-2-cyclohexene-5-carboxylates (LK(E)-P(E)s). The synthesis incorporates multiple reactions in “one-pot.” The structures were confirmed by 1H, 13C and 31P NMR and liquid chromatography tandem UV spectrophotometry high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC/UV/HRMS). The new analogues were assayed for cytotoxicity and autophagy stimulation effects in HeLa and HEK-293 cell lines. The lead compound 2-n-hexyl-LKE-P was evaluated in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson’s disease (pink1B9) via oral administration. Behaviors including climbing ability, sleeping pattern and longevity were recorded and analyzed. Results show that 2-n-hexyl-LKE-P is stable, non-toxic, stimulates autophagy and improves the behaviorial deficits of a fly model of Parkinson’s disease.

Single atom-conceptualized electrocatalysis

Primary Author: Qiurong Shi

Faculty Sponsor: Yuehe Lin

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Downsizing the electrocatalysts from nanoparticles to single atoms, the electrocatalytic activities leapt due to the 100% atom ultilization. However, the truth is that a solely atom does not work. It needs “collaborators”. For example, some electrochemical reaction needs the specific coordination environment, and some might require at least two atoms together for breaking a chemical bond. Based on this conception, the ultra-small and effective unit for electrocatalysis is defined as “single atom-conceptualized electrocatalysts” (SACEs). Recent years have enjoyed an increasing interest in synthesizing SACEs due to the energy crisis and sources scarcity. Nevertheless, how to creatively generate intrinsically energetic unites and strategically increase their density remain to be two critical challenges. Here, we have developed various SACEs featured with MNx (M=Fe or Co) moieties for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), Pd-ensembles or single Pt atoms for ethanol oxidation reaction (EtOR) and H2O2 production, respectively. Regarding to MNx moieties, the preparation of robust MN2 active moieties anchored hierarchically porous SACEs was realized via a bimodal-templated strategy. The electrocatalytic performances toward ORR were further boosted in acidic electrolyte via a modified secondary atom isolation mechanism to increase the density of active sites. Regarding to Pd ensembles and single Pt atoms decorated on AuCu nanowires, the surface atomic configurations were ingeniously sculptured through kinetically-controlled galvanic replacement reactions. The catalytic performances of Pd ensembles toward EtOR jumped compared with traditional alloys. Single Pt atoms benefited with the metal-support interaction behaved a two-electron transfer path for a high selectivity in H2O2 production.

Improving preharvest sprouting tolerance without sacrificing emergence: a genomic prediction approach

Primary Author: Stephanie Sjoberg

Faculty Sponsor: Arron Carter

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat is the germination of matured grains on the mother plant causing significant price reduction and profit loss. The major obstacle to increasing PHS tolerance through seed dormancy is reduced rates of fall seedling emergence and associated decreased yield. The objective of this study was to develop wheat varieties that have tolerance to PHS and vigorous and quick emergence from deep planting. PHS tolerance and emergence in 720 Pacific Northwest-adapted winter wheat lines were recorded using field and lab methods across three years. Best linear unbiased estimates per line were calculated for each trait, within and across environments, using the ASreml package in R. Genomic data for 35,910 markers collected from all lines was used in a genome-wide association mapping study to detect genetic loci associated with PHS tolerance and field emergence with the GAPIT package. The same data was used to calculate breeding values and validate genomic prediction models with the rrBLUP package. Association mapping revealed three significant loci related to emergence on chromosomes 3B, 5A, and 7A and four significant loci related to PHS on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 3B, and 4D. The accuracies of prediction models ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 depending on the trait. Our results demonstrate that a combination of association mapping and genomic prediction modeling could break the inverse correlation between both traits, allowing improvement of PHS tolerance without compromising emergence in winter wheat varieties.

Associations of TNFa gene polymorphism with resilience to sleep deprivation and caffeine sensitivity

Primary Author: LillianSkeiky

Co-Author(s): Allison Brager

Devon Hansen

Brieann Satterfield

Martha Petrovick

Hans Van Dongen

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Sleep deprivation degrades the fidelity of human brain information processing, leading to cognitive impairment. Caffeine mitigates the cognitive impairment associated with sleep deprivation. Carriers of the A allele of a single nucleotide polymorphism of the TNFa gene (G308A) are resilient to cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation as compared to individuals homozygous for the G allele. Whether these caffeine and genetic effects are related and whether they interact is unknown. In an 18-day laboratory study, 12 healthy adults (age 27.4 ± 6.9; 6 females) underwent three sessions of 48-hour total sleep deprivation (TSD) separated by three days for recovery sleep. In randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion, during each TSD session a specific dose of caffeine (0, 200, or 300 mg) was administered four times at 12-hour intervals. The fidelity of information processing was measured every 2 hours by means of a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Each subject’s TNFa genotype was assessed from a blood sample. Subjects homozygous for the TNFa G allele showed greater PVT impairment during sleep deprivation in the 0 mg caffeine (i.e., placebo) condition as compared to carriers of the A allele and as compared to the 200 and 300 mg caffeine conditions (ANOVA interaction: F2,566=5.23, P=0.005). Caffeine conferred no appreciable performance benefit in carriers of the A allele, indicating non-additive effects of TNFa genotype and caffeine and suggesting a shared mechanism of action regarding the fidelity of information processing during sleep deprivation. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

Product market proximity, multimarket competition and herding: How do supplier populations evolve?

Primary Author: Paul Skilton

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): MISE/WSUTC

Campus: Tri-Cities

Abstract:

Supply chain managers should be interested in how supplier populations for market categories evolve. Suppliers can enter product markets through internal development or by acquisition. The entry of new suppliers and the shifting portfolios of incumbent suppliers alter competitive pressures in markets by changing supplier populations and enhance or undermine supplier bargaining power. This study hypotheses mechanisms by which three sets of factors influence how and when suppliers enter product markets. Supplier population behaviors like herding can be seen as markers of market attractiveness, while the technical and market proximity of opportunities influence the ease of entry. The presence of multimarket competitors, which is assessed using ideas from network theory, is reduce the likelihood that suppliers will enter markets, under the logic of mutual forbearance. The study tests theory using SDC Platinum data on acquisitions and FDA data on three pharmaceutical categories, opioids, blood pressure treatments and anti-psychotics, over the period from 2011 to 2016. Using multinomial logistic regression, I find that different sets of factors influence entry modes, with technical and market proximity related primarily to internal development, which is also negatively related to aggregate multimarket competition.

Using machine learning to extract food pricing data from online food menus

Primary Author: JustinSmith

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): WSU Extension

Campus: Olympia

Abstract:

Tracking and reporting pricing trends in the retail food sector is costly and time consuming. Improving efficiency in collection and reporting can potentially lower costs and increase accessibility for policymakers and small businesses. Although a growing number of retailers publish pricing information on the web, the use of different publishing formats by retailers (e.g. web, pdf, image) often require people to actively search and collect pricing data. Advances in data mining and computer vision offer a number of directions for automating the search and retrieval of pricing data. This poster present applied research into the development of a data extraction pipeline for collecting online menu pricing data from restaurants in Washington State. The approach is somewhat unique in that rather than traversing web, pdf and images to identify food prices, all data is converted to an image which is processed using a combination of deep probabilistic inference and combinatorics to identify food items and their corresponding prices. Initial results show near human-level recognition for a subset of menus in different formats. However, accuracy is greatly affected by menus with a complex structure or noise in the image. Additional work is being carried out to improve accuracy of item-price pairing for a larger sample of menu items with the goal of scaling to the entire State.

Bringing the world to Washington State University’s doorstep

Primary Author: Eric Sorensen

Primary College/Unit: University Marketing and Communications

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): University Marketing and Communications

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

A major goal of Washington State University’s Strategic Plan is to, “advance WSU’s reach both nationally and internationally in existing and emerging areas of achievement,” with the sub-goal to “build upon WSU’s current and emerging areas of research excellence and international reputation.” Effective science communication is an essential tactic in making this happen, informing vast public audiences and stakeholders central to the land grant mission. Yet it faces several challenges: a shrinking news media, the remoteness of the university’s largest campus, and the public’s increasingly fragmented attention. Through a variety of means, the work of WSU researchers has repeatedly been featured in prominent regional and national media, from the Seattle Times to the Washington Post. Media tracking by University Communications has shown that, in one year, stories about new WSU-generated knowledge can reach a potential audience of more than 4 billion people with an actual readership of more than 60 million people. Using the Cision Media Database, we can see what types of research have the greatest impact and how they intersect with both fundamental news values and the public consciousness.

Modeling SAFTE-FAST predicted effectiveness at final top of descent: Actigraphy v. Self Report v. SAFTE-FAST Autosleep

Primary Author: Rhiannon Soriano Smith

Co-Author(s): Amanda Lamp

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Sleep and Performance Research Center

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Actigraphy is the standard for measuring total sleep time (TST) in operational sleep studies because of its high correlation with polysomnography (PSG), the laboratory standard for measuring sleep. In contrast to Actigraphy, Self-Report asks an individual to report their perceived TST. SAFTE-FAST’s Autosleep function estimates likely sleep times using prior sleep times, time of work, and length of time awake. In this presentation, we compare Actigraphy, Self-Report, and Autosleep to generate SAFTE-FAST predicted effectiveness scores on a three-segment, overnight Guam (GUM) round trip to better understand how the modalities compare. We seek to determine whether Self-Report or Autosleep is more highly correlated with Actigraphy, recognizing that Actigraphy is currently the most accepted modality for measuring sleep in the field. This study shows lower predicted effectiveness scores at final top of descent (TOD) as predicted by Actigraphy (M=70.07, SD=5.12), compared to Autosleep (M=74.34, SD=1.85) and Self-Report (M=73.19, SD=4.21). A strong correlation (r(20) = 0.748, p<0.000) was found between predicted effectiveness as measured by Actigraphy and Self-Report sleep data. No correlation was found between Actigraphy and Autosleep. When comparing all modalities, it appears that both Autosleep and Self-Report may be overestimating predicted effectiveness scores. Our findings suggest that when Actigraphy is unavailable, we recommend using Self-Report.

A comparison of fundamental nutritional niches of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Primary Author: Anna Staudenmaier

Co-Author(s):  Lisa Shipley

Faculty Sponsor: Lisa Shipley

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Although similar taxonomically and ecologically, ranges of Mule and White-tailed Deer are segregated across much of North America, except for a broad north-south zone roughly along the Rocky Mountains. Although free-ranging deer have been extensively studied in geological areas where they exist with no overlap and areas where they coexist. However, field studies suggest that mule deer might be better able to tolerate plant fiber and plant secondary metabolites than white-tailed deer. Therefore, we directly compared the ability of Mule and White-tailed Deer to digest plant fiber and nutrients and to detoxify a-pinene, a monoterpene found in conifers and evergreen shrubs using in vivo digestion and feeding trials with 5-6 captive deer of each species. When fed a pelleted diet with 29% neutral detergent fiber, Mule Deer tended to have a higher dry matter, energy, and fiber digestibility than did white-tailed deer, but a similar protein digestibility. However, both deer species had the same daily dry matter intake of pellets, and their intake declined linearly at the same rate as the percent of a-pinene increased from 0-4% over 11 days. For both species, intake of a-pinene increased to an asymptote of 0.62 g/kg body mass/day (SD = 0.24). These experiments suggest that the nutritional niches of mule and white-tailed deer are very similar, which might result in competition for food resources where they coexist. Our future experiments will compare the deer’s tolerance for higher fiber forages and forages with condensed tannins.

Development and Implementation of a core curriculum for interprofessional education of health professions students at WSU

Primary Author: Angela Stewart

Co-Author(s): Sandy Carollo

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Yakima

Abstract:

Background: Interprofessional Education (IPE) has a goal of improving collaboration and patient care quality, safety and cost. Through IPE, future healthcare providers are trained in the knowledge and skills needed to work collaboratively to provide high quality team-based care. Objective: The goal of this project is to develop and implement a core curriculum for IPE at WSU Health Sciences. It is essential that the curriculum (1) be founded on the nationally accepted IPE Core Competencies, (2) ensure that programs can meet accreditation standards for IPE, and (3) be scalable and exportable to multiple campus locations with varying professional representation and student numbers. Methods: Riel’s action research model was used as the framework for development of the curricular model. Curriculum is driven by a steering committee of Nursing, Medicine, and Pharmacy representatives. Assessment of change in student knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors will be undertaken utilizing validated tools. Results: In Fall 2018, initial curriculum was embedded in existing health sciences courses, and the project will be fully implemented within 2 years. This model includes an online orientation module, followed by four core IPE learning sessions, each founded on clear learning objectives such that the specific activities may be varied depending on campus location, participating professions, or other variables. The model is progressive, building on previous sessions, with fidelity of each encounter to increase over time. Conclusions: This project highlights the value and complexities of implementing a coordinated and progressive IPE curriculum across multiple colleges, programs, and campuses.

The effects of smartphone addiction on learning: a meta-analysis

Primary Author: Oluwafemi Sunday

Co-Author(s): Olusola Adesope

Patricia Louise Maarhuis

Faculty Sponsor: Olusola Adesope

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Due to the prevalence of smartphones in society, excessive use and even addiction have become significant global concerns. Smartphone addiction could be seen as one form of various technological addictions. It has been given different names such as ‘problematic mobile phone usage’, ‘habitual mobile phone usage’, and ‘compulsive mobile phone usage’ (Kim & Byrne, 2011). Over the past 10 years, smartphone addiction has generated intense debates and has been widely documented in academic and non-academic literature. Although numerous studies have examined the relationships between mobile phone use and educational achievements, many of such studies have yielded mixed findings. Indeed, little is known about the effect of smartphone addiction on student learning and some of the mental health challenges that this addiction may pose to individuals. Hence, the overarching goal of this meta-analysis was to examine current research regarding the effects of smartphone addiction on learning. After an extensive search for studies meeting specified inclusion criteria, data from 35 studies were extracted and analyzed following well-established protocols and guidelines for conducting a meta-analysis. Findings indicated that the weighted mean effect size of smartphone addiction on learning was r = -0.12 with a 95% confidence interval of -0.190 to -0.046. Overall effect size was moderated by different variables and varied from small to large, depending on the smartphone addiction outcomes measured. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that smartphone addiction has negative effects on student learning and overall academic performance. Recommendations include further research into this new and growing global concern.

LAUNCH: Students maximizing learning through experiential opportunities

Primary Author: Samantha Swindell

Co-Author(s): Katie Forsythe

Laura Hill

Denise Yost

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): TRANS CHANGE

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The LAUNCH (Into Experiential Learning) Program facilitates students’ engagement in experiential learning opportunities that maximize their academic and personal development, including: 1) research and creative activities; 2) internships; 3) entrepreneurial competitions; 4) outreach and civic engagement; 5) leadership; and 6) global education. LAUNCH is one component of the Transformational Change Initiative, WSU’s large student success grant. LAUNCH asks participants to imagine themselves at graduation and to envision their time at WSU as a “journey” to that imagined best self. Through a series of structured activities, participants create a personalized “G.P.S.” (goals, personal values, and strengths) to guide that journey and work alongside peer facilitators (LAUNCH Ambassadors) to identify experiential opportunities that align with their values, play to their strengths, and move them toward their post-graduation goals. Participants generate an action plan for connecting with at least one experiential opportunity and make a formal commitment to move forward with their plan following completion of the program. LAUNCH was piloted in spring 2018. Pre/post assessment data revealed significant changes on a validated measure of personal growth, including significant increases in participants’ openness to change, behavioral intentionality, and ability to plan following program completion. In fall 2018, LAUNCH was scaled-up through various WSU partnerships. A total of 957 students completed the program, with approximately half participating in a collaborative face-to-face format and half completing an individual writing exercise. This poster will highlight the details and implementation of these formats, compare their outcome data, and discuss next steps for LAUNCH in 2019.

Causes of change orders in the construction industry of the United States

Primary Author: Tommy Tafazzoli

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Change orders are a global issue that causes significant economic losses and is detrimental to communities’ endeavor in maximizing efficiency in their industries. Due to a wide range of complexities that are inherent in construction projects, change orders continue to negatively impact the construction industry. A fundamental approach to prevent change orders is identifying the causes that can potentially lead to making changes throughout the project and then trying to prevent their occurrence. This paper reflects the results of a comprehensive study of potential causes of delay in the United States construction industry. The most common potential causes were identified first through listing the change order causes that have been introduced in similar studies. Then, a structured survey was conducted to assess the relative criticality of causes of change orders. The targeted respondents where experienced construction professionals. The collected data was analyzed and the results indicated that changes in the client’s needs during design or construction is the major cause of change orders in the U.S. Using the relative importance index method, the relative criticality of all the thirteen potential causes was computed. Some policy recommendation to control the top causes of change orders are provided based on the literature and interviews with industry professionals. The findings of the research can be used as a tool to identify the most critical causes of change orders, invest budget and time efficiently in preventing the chance of occurrence for the potential causes of change orders in the construction industry of the USA.

Thermal expansion reduction of plastic using natural fiber filler

Primary Author: ThomasTarlton

Faculty Sponsor: Karl Englund

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Plastics play an integral role in many facets of modern society; providing resilient and tailored behavior in applications ranging from toys to car parts to construction materials. One major shortcoming regarding plastics is the tendency to expand or lengthen dramatically with increasing temperature. While metals also expand with increased temperature, plastics like acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) can have six times the expansion coefficient of iron. This potential for expansion means warping or other deformation can occur with a temperature change of 30°F. The goal of this research is to find an effective and efficient method of reducing the coefficient of linear thermal expansion in plastics, through the addition of a natural, renewable filler. Samples were produced with various levels of wood flour at three different particle sizes. The particle sizes evaluate were 250 µm, 149 µm, and 105 µm to evaluate if particle size has any effect on expansion coefficients. To test the effect of temperature the samples were evaluated between -30°F and 140°F in accordance with ASTM D6341. The results of this work show that the addition of a natural filler can reduce expansion significantly, regardless of particle size. By using this system, concerns regarding temperature related failure can be mitigated.

Fractal aesthetics: Designing for stress reduction with fractal geometries

Primary Author: Maria Tatum

Faculty Sponsor: Matt Melcher

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Stress is known to have a profound impact on human health and well-being. In 2017, the national stress level in America ranked 4.7 on a 10 point scale. Nature has long been explored as an antidote to physiological and psychological stress with large bodies of literature in support of its benefits. But with 90% of time spent indoors, exposure to nature may not always be feasible. The question of how to incorporate stress reduction within the built environment falls to those who design them. The strategy explored here is informed by findings in the fields of mathematics, psychology, and neurology which illustrate a link between nature’s restorative effect and its underlying geometrical properties, fractal geometries. Fractal geometries present a method for quantifying the characteristics of natural scenes. An aesthetic preference for a fractal dimension between D=1.3-1.5 has been established and correlated with increased restorative benefits. This study began with the analysis and abstraction of natural images within the preferred dimension. The abstracted images were then translated into patterns and tested for their retention of the original fractal dimension. Ongoing explorations include the translation of the 2D designs into 3D form using methods including computer generation, 3D printing, and hand craft. Implications for the design field include a quantifiable method for implementing restorative design elements in order to optimize stress reduction within the built environment.

Real-time extraction of helicopter analog gauge data using deep neural networks

Primary Author: Lee Taylor

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. John Swensen

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The ability of deep learning artificial intelligence to deal with highly unstructured information has been one of the enabling technologies that has made self-driving cars possible. In particular, the advent of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has been instrumental in vision-based segmentation and classification of objects in the unstructured driving environments of these vehicles. This ability to generalize for many applications is why we’re using CNNs to read analog dial gauges using inexpensive hardware. In development is a real time vision-based gauge panel readout system that uses convolutional neural networks for the Robinson R22 helicopter analog gauge panel. It’s a specialized CNN which remains shallow as possible, while meeting the required precision for the analog dial gauge. This is due to the requirement that deployment is possible on non-specialized hardware such as embedded microcontrollers. A network that has been trained to read analog gauges has applications beyond the initial research. This ability to read analog gauges could be leveraged to provide a higher level of feedback and monitoring through inexpensive cameras and microcontrollers. This network that is being used in this research has been trained for a single dial gauge readout. As additional data is cataloged, the network will be extended to all 6 analog dials on the panel. The network may be extendable to a simultaneous readout, able to identify each gauge and predict their values in real-time using a single camera. This research will save time on post processing of image data and provide immediate feedback during a flight.

Bliss Point & Ironhorses: Quintets for the Pan Pacific Ensemble

Primary Author: Sophia Tegart

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Music

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The wind quintet is a well-established chamber ensemble in Western Art Music. Composers from all over Europe and the Americas have written for this ensemble, giving it a vast repertoire. Conversely to its popularity in Western cultures, the wind quintet genre has not been as popular in Asia. The mission of the Pan Pacific Ensemble is to expand the wind quintet repertoire with works by Asian and Asian-American composers, as well as to expose the classical music audience to new music. With previous commissions from notable composers like Narong Prangcharoen, P.Q. Phan, and Asha Srinivasan, the Pan Pacific Ensemble also wanted to commission composers living in Asia or composers of Asian descent, specifically Nick Omiccioli and Kenji Bunch. Composer and guitarist Nick Omiccioli, is Assistant Professor of Composition at the Yong Siew Toh Conservatory in Singapore. He uses heavy metal music models to create electrifying musical works that fuse classical and rock music together. Kenji Bunch, composition instructor at Portland State University, writes music intended to bridge the divide between different cultures. One way in which he does this is by combining pop, rock, and folk elements from those cultures with classical techniques. Aided by the College of Arts and Sciences Arts and Humanities Grant, the Pan Pacific Ensemble was able to commission two new original works, record them in the WSU Recording Studio, and disseminate the recordings through Albany Records. Bliss Point and ironhorses have since been performed across the United States.

Wet air oxidation using nitrogen doped cellulose char catalyst to treat phenol contaminated water effluent

Primary Author: Iva Tews

Co-Author(s): Michael Apasiku

Sohrab Haghighi-Mood

Faculty Sponsor: Manuel Garcia-Perez

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to produce fuel, has made significant improvements in conversion and yield of the final product. However, little research has been focused on the byproducts from these processes. HTL produces a water product, referred to as the aqueous phase, which can contain 1 – 2 wt% carbon in the form of organic acids or alcohols. This highly dilute water product has had little attention in the process development of HTL, yet it’s recycled is necessary for the continuous liquefaction operation. In this researcher we utilize Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a way to treat the aqueous phase and remove the dilute organic contaminants. Phase I of this project examines how WAO acts on a simulated HTL aqueous of phenol dissolved in water. Phenol is a highly toxic organic compound which is easily dissolved in water, therefore difficult to remove. WAO is conducted in simple tube reactors to allow the simulated aqueous phase to interact with oxygen at moderate temperatures (190 – 260 oC), under pressure of 1 MPa and at various reaction times of 15 – 45 min. Initial results indicated that all the phenol was removed. However, when the WAO products were analyzed in more detail, intermediate oxidation compounds of phenol such as catechol were identified. In our quest to achieve full phenol oxidation, a nitrogen doped cellulose char catalyst was developed. The final results presented here compare the extent of phenol removal from water in with several differing char catalysts under WAO conditions.

Nanostructured IrxPb aerogels with for OER: Facile synthesis and enhanced electrocatalytic performance

Primary Author: Hangyu Tian

Faculty Sponsor: Yuehe Lin

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane electrolyte water electrolyzers (PEMWEs) has suffered from the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) for a long time. Among different materials, Ir based materials are considered as more reliable OER catalyst for PEMWEs due to its high corrosive stability. However, its catalysis efficiency needs to be optimized by further design on its structure. Among current research, aerogels, as a class of promising electrocatalysts, hold great promise on OER. These Ir-based aerogels has controlled porous nanostructures, bridging the gap between nanoscale and macroscale. Here, we report a facile method to synthesize Ir-Pb aerogels using sodium hypophosphite as a reducing agent. By increasing reaction temperature, the formation of aerogels can be finished in 4 hours. Owing to the combined advantages of noble metals and aerogels, such as low density, high surface area, profuse porosity and excellent electrocatalytic activity, the obtained aerogels nanostructure not only significantly increase the number of active site of noble metals but also provide enhanced electrolyte permeability and fast mass transport/electron transfer, further accelerating the reaction kinetics. Especially, compared to other non-noble materials it has enhanced electrochemical performance for OER in acidic condition.

Multi-material additive manufacturing for site-specific property control in engineering structures

Primary Author: Kellen Traxel

Co-Author(s): Amit Bandyopadhyay

Faculty Sponsor: Amit Bandyopadhyay

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Metal-based additive manufacturing (i.e., 3D-Printing or AM) has significantly influenced different manufacturing operations such as biomedical implants, airplane engine components, and energy-system parts by reducing the cost and time inherent with the use of traditional manufacturing methods. Despite these advances, most manufacturers have not capitalized on full-scale utilization of the process, opting to merely fabricate components previously designed for traditional manufacturing techniques, not exploring the different variations of AM that can be used to fully optimize components for their intended application. Because of this, the next generation of AM involves developing fundamentally-different conceptual designs that provide full user control of structural properties and function, realizing parts that are significantly improved over what was previously designed, and only possible via AM. A prime example of this is multi-material structures that have tunable, site-specific properties, a concept that is still under development. To this end, we have used a powder-based metal AM method (directed-energy-deposition) to control the composition and properties within multi-material composite structures to optimize material properties for different applications. By varying the processing strategy and printed composition, composites were fabricated with a ribbon-like structure and distinct, location-specific properties. Extensive microstructure and phase analysis, as well as functional bidirectional-testing, reveal that this design concept can be used in applications that benefit from parts with designed directional-properties such as ballistic armor and pressure vessels, and can be tuned to fit the needs of many different engineering applications to optimize performance.

Hibernation induces transcriptional remodeling in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues of the grizzly bear

Primary Author: Shawn Trojahn

Faculty Sponsor: Joanna Kelley

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Biological Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Many bears undergo annual cycles that include extreme obesity, weight loss, insulin sensitivity and resistance, and greatly reduced or no weight bearing activity. Yet, they show no lasting ill effects. Worldwide, humans suffer from obesity, type 2 diabetes, and disuse atrophy, but effective treatments are limited. Therefore, knowledge gained by understanding the unique physiology of bears could be applied to human disease. Using RNA-sequencing as an unbiased approach to identify the scope and specificity of transcriptional changes occurring annually in adipose, liver, and muscle of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) we found that hibernation was characterized by extensive and complex changes in gene expression in all tissues. However, adipose had the greatest number of differentially expressed genes between hibernating and non-hibernating states, highlighting that adipose is a highly dynamic tissue. Among the differentially expressed genes were many involved in metabolism, insulin signaling, muscle atrophy, and circadian rhythms. This study highlights both the diverse transcriptional changes occurring in metabolic tissues during periods of lean mass gain, obesity, and fasting of a large hibernator, and uncovers potentially new research targets for human diseases.

When pharmacy goes to war: The evolving role of the Japanese American pharmacist in United States’ WWII internment camps

Primary Author: Megan Undeberg

Co-Author(s):  Ettie Rosenberg

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in early February 1942. This action resulted in the mass evacuation and interment of around 120,000 Japanese Americans residing on the West Coast of the United States into one of 10 “relocation centers” in desolate and remote areas of the United States. One group of professionals instrumental to the health and welfare of those within the camps were pharmacists. However, very little information has been discovered regarding the role of the pharmacist in the camps, and the impact on the profession during the war years. The author discovered two sets of correspondences of Japanese America pharmacists in the United States during the span of 1942-45. One set belongs correspondences of a non-interned pharmacist living in Denver, CO and providing care via mail service. The other series of documentation relates the experiences of multiple pharmacists within the camps, their struggles in procuring vital medications when the government stock was not supplied, and their creativity with other allied health professionals to pool resources and utilize their non-imprisoned, non-Japanese American contacts outside the fences to ensure medical care was available and accessible through the duration of the internment. This vital information reopens a chapter of our American history that bears evaluation: disparity of care, marginalization of communities, and interprofessionalism of health care providers within a severely restricted, government forced system. Lessons learned continue to be pertinent in today’s health care system and provision of care.

WSU Winter Session and student success; Is there a relationship?

Primary Author: Rebecca Van de Vord

Co-Author(s): Jon Walter

Primary College/Unit: Academic Outreach and Innovation

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Academic Outreach and Innovation

Campus: Global

Abstract:

In 2010, during the three weeks between the end of fall term and beginning of spring, Global Campus offered the first online “Winter Session” pilot courses. Five different classes enrolled 63 students. Fast forward eight years later to Winter Session 2018, in which almost 600 students are enrolled in twenty different courses. In 2012 a unique identifier was added to Winter Session courses. (2010 and 2011 they were labeled simply as fall term courses). Working with IR, AOI used six years of data (2012-2017) to explore several research questions in order to understand what the data can tell us about the impact of Winter Session on student success. In sum it does appear as though full-time undergraduate students who are enrolling in Winter Session courses tend to graduate sooner and are retained at a higher percentage than the general University population. The poster will present information on course, enrollment, and grade patterns along with student characteristics and limitations of the study.

Guardians of culture: Exhibit design as storyteller:
A critical analysis of the Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece

Primary Author: Carrie Vielle

Co-Author(s): Jamie Rice

Robert Krikac

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Design and Construction

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Museums have served as guardians of material culture and traditions for hundreds of years. As an institution, museums bear a tremendous responsibility to not only preserve and protect cultural heritage but to continually reinvent contemporary modes of effective engagement with the public to ensure accurate story-telling and education. Beyond the obligatory title card signage, this research explores how environmental conditions and physical exhibition display strategies in the new National Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece contribute to the visitor’s contextual understanding of the ancient historicism, meaning and cultural value of “artifact.” Research findings reported here will summarize directed participatory engagements experienced by a group of WSU Graduate Architecture and Interior Design students during a visit to the Acropolis Museum during a 10-day tour of museums and monuments in Athens and Rome. Prior to departure, students participated in multiple modes of research to focus their observational “design lens.” While on site, students toured the exhibit spaces, documenting the architecture and display designs in detail, and then met with the team of exhibition designers to discuss their philosophies, best practices, and strategies for designing the contemporary display environment to maximize the efficacy of their exhibit programs to foster education of “ancient.” Students completed analytical comparisons between notable exhibition displays and drew conclusions as they relate to success of viewer experience. Evaluating pre-departure and post-experience surveys, together with analyzing the students’ observational and experiential comparisons of exhibits, reveals new understanding of how environmental controls and exhibit design can influence visitor experience and understanding.

Exposure to political news and negative attitudes towards migrants of a different ethnicity in Russia

Primary Author: Anastasia Vishnevskaya

Faculty Sponsor: Jay Hmielowski

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Scholars argue that media affects public attitudes and beliefs (Lang, 2011; McGuire, 1986; Nabi & Oliver, 2009; Shrum, 2009). In the context of the growing issue of migration across the world, a lot of research has been conducted on how media affects public attitudes towards migrants (Meltzer et al., 2017; Haynes et al., 2016; Schemer, 2012; Richardson, 2005). The research findings show that the negative coverage of migrants is associated with predominantly negative attitudes towards them (Matthes & Schmuck, 2015; Boomgaarden &Vliegenthart, 2007, 2009). Russia has become “the second largest immigration system in the world” (Malakhov, 2014) with a “hawkish” media coverage of migrants (Heinrich & Tanaev, 2009; Stoycheff and Nisbet, 2017). However, little is known about how such a negative representation of migrants affects Russians’ attitudes towards them. I argue that the more Russians are exposed to the negative news coverage of migrants on the TV, the more negative attitudes the Russians will have towards them. The analysis uses multiple linear regression and the European Social Survey (ESS) data from 2006 to 2016 to determine the association between two variables within each year. The results suggest that exposure to the negative news coverage of migrants of a different ethnicity on the TV is correlated with holing negative attitudes towards immigrants when controlling for gender, age, and education and is statistically significant only for the year of 2012. The limitations of the study and the discussion of the future research are provided.

Voteless majority: Washington’s vote in the 2016 presidential election as data art

Primary Author: Lisa Waananen Jones

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Maps and charts showing election results are among the most commonly produced and widely seen forms of data visualization in journalism. Most news industry visualization of election data focuses on vote counts to report which candidate has won an election and by what margin. This work of data art makes use of the same election data, but puts the focus on people, rather than votes, and challenges the common understanding of “majority” in a democracy. It visualizes how the people of Washington voted in the 2016 presidential election, with each bead representing 500 people. People who did not or could not vote outnumber those who voted. Unlike news graphics intended to inform, this tactile visualization is intended to invite inquiry and contemplation about the conflation of election results and the “will of the people.” The bead curtain is made with 14,367 acrylic beads color-coded to represent those who voted for the Democratic candidate (blue), those who voted for the Republican (red), those who voted for other candidates (gold), and those who did not or could not vote (clear), which comprises eligible voters who who didn’t vote and those who can’t vote: minors, some convicted felons, people deemed mentally incompetent, and noncitizens. The data is from the Washington Secretary of State and Office of Financial Management. The beads are strung on nylon filament with spacers, and affixed to a wooden bar. The total size is 6.5×7 feet. It was displayed at the juried Terrain art show in Spokane in October 2018.

The geographical variation of hospital value-based purchasing total performance scores in FY 2018

Primary Author:  Jing Wang

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Jae Kennedy

Primary College/Unit: Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Background: rewards acute-care hospitals with incentive payments for quality care they give to Medicare beneficiaries as assessed by Total Performance Score (TPS), which is calculated by combining scores for each of four domains (Clinical care, patient experience of care, efficiency and cost reduction, and safety). The total amount for value-based incentive payments in FY 2018 was approximately $1.9 billion. The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) program is a Medicare initiative that Objective: This study investigates the relationship between geographical location of hospitals and their TPS under the VBP program. Data source: Recent total and domain performance scores for all hospitals were downloaded from the DHHS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), and the ZIP codes were mapped to Rural/Urban Codes developed by the University of Washington. Analysis: ANOVA and T-tests are being used to determine whether there were significant differences in TPS scores by state, region and RUC. Average of percentile ranks of all hospitals in each region, division, or state were calculated and mapped using Excel. Results and implications: These analyses test the association between the geographic locations of hospitals and performance scores. The study findings will have important financial and political implications for hospital administrators and state policymakers.

Results of the Washington State 4-H teen program assessment

Primary Author: Pam Watson

Co-Author(s): Elizabeth Weybright

Joy Lile

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: WSU Lewis County Extension

Abstract:

In 2017-2018 Washington State undertook a study to understand the needs and desires of teens in the 4-H program and to make recommendations for future teen-focused programming. State-wide data was collected electronically using Qualtrics on 4-H participation by age (e.g. Harder, Lamm, Lamm, Rose and Rask, 2005) suggest that participation in 4-H programming declines throughout adolescence. Ninety-three youth aged 12-19 participated in the online survey. This poster shares methods, results, and lessons learned. Results include youth demographics, participation styles, communication preferences, youth outcomes, and teens’ likes and dislikes in 4-H. The intended audience is Extension 4-H professionals who work with teens or oversee teen programming.

Findings from the WSU 4-H State teen assessment

Primary Author: Elizabeth Weybright

Co-Author(s): Joy Lile

Pamela Watson

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Engagement in structured, supervised after-school youth programming, such as 4-H, is associated with positive developmental outcomes. However, engagement in such programs declines across adolescence (Harder, Lamm, Lamm, Rose and Rask, 2005). To prevent this decline, we first need to understand youths’ level of and satisfaction with WSU 4-H engagement. To address this, WSU 4-H enrolled youth were invited to participate in an online survey regarding 4-H program engagement, communication, and outcomes. Quantitative results (n=93; M age=15) indicated most teens engaged in the program through local club and county events and would prefer to receive personalized emails about program opportunities. The longer teens engaged in 4-H, the more likely they were to report experiencing positive outcomes. Qualitative results indicated teens value the sense of belonging they receive from 4-H but desire greater opportunities for youth voice and for more developmentally appropriate activities. Results inform Washington state 4-H program priority areas including developmentally appropriate programs that provide increasingly complex and challenging activities and opportunities to build social relationships as well as career skill building opportunities. Additional needs include initiatives to increase diversity in teen programs and train more adults as teen resource leaders.

Agronomic and economic performance of organic forage, quinoa, and grain rotations in the Palouse Region of the Pacific Northwest, USA

Primary Author: Rachel Wieme

Co-Author(s): Lynne Carpenter-Boggs

David Crowder

Kevin Murphy

John Reganold

Faculty Sponsor: John Reganold

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Volatile commodity crop prices and concern for long-term agroecosystem health have farmers looking for alternative practices to increase revenue diversity and protect soil health. Organic management is a rapidly growing alternative, and quinoa is a potential new cash crop for organic systems in the Pacific Northwest. This study tested the effects of diversifying dryland crop rotations with organic quinoa in the Palouse region by comparing the crop productivity, crop quality, and economic performance of eight 3-year grain cropping sequences, as part of an 8-year organic crop rotation with alfalfa. Overall yields were better for sequence treatments that started with chickpea compared to treatments that started with barley. Organic quinoa yields were lower than the regional yield potential, but sequences with quinoa performed near average for economic returns. Mean returns over variable costs were $324 ha-1 yr-1 for the 3-year sequences; all treatments averaged positive net returns to variable costs despite some years having negative returns. Higher net returns occurred from sequences with wheat and sequences that started with chickpea. The 8-year organic crop rotations produced higher returns over variable costs ($615 ha-1 yr-1) than a typical conventional grain rotation with county average yields during the same 8-year period ($477 ha-1 yr-1). We concluded that premiums for organic alfalfa and grains make these organic cropping systems economically viable for dryland production in the Pacific Northwest. However, advances in organic weed control and regionally suited quinoa varieties are needed to reduce the risk for farmers attempting this cropping system diversification.

Data collection as intervention? Using ecological momentary assessment to engage young adults and gauge media use, health implications

Primary Author: Jessica Willoughby

Co-Author(s): Stephanie Gibbons

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Data collection on mobile devices may be convenient and appealing to young adults. In addition, the process of data collection may influence thoughts and attitudes, prompting participants to think about certain topics more critically. I conducted two studies in which young adults (ages 18-24) reported on their media use and health topics related to risk behaviors using ecological momentary assessment, in which participants answered questions on their cellphones. One study focused on the connection between alcohol and hookups. The second was focused on the role of emotions, social media use, and tanning behaviors. Participants completed surveys three times a day for one week that asked about media use and the content to which they were exposed. Participants were also asked about emotions in the second study, as emotions may prompt social media use and tanning behaviors. At the completion of the ecological momentary assessment, participants were invited to participate in follow up interviews. More than 30 participants completed the follow up interviews. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis in which we looked for common themes. We found that participants enjoyed the data collection process and would be willing to participate again. Additionally, the data collection prompted participants to think more critically about the media to which they were exposed and to make connections from the content to their lives, which could have implications for the impact of media on health.

Epithelial cell-specific roles of estrogen in the oviduct

Primary Author: WipaweeWinuthayanon

Co-Author(s):  Sierra Olsen

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Veterinary Medicine

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Fallopian tubes or the oviduct is where fertilization and the next few days of embryo development take place. In vitro fertilization (IVF) makes the bypass of Fallopian tubes possible. However, more evidence has shown that babies born from the IVF techniques had a higher risk of diseases later in life compared to naturally conceived embryos. This finding emphasizes the importance of the oviduct function during fertilization and embryo development. Yet, how the oviduct works in the context of pregnancy establishment is virtually unknown. It is well-established that estrogen regulates cell shape and size of the oviduct. As such, our initial study presents here addressed how estrogen modulates the function of the oviduct through transcriptomic analysis. We hypothesize that estrogen modulates the transcriptional profile of the oviductal epithelium to support embryo development and transport during early pregnancy. We used single cell-RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology to identify transcripts in each epithelial cell isolated from the mouse oviduct after estrogen treatment. We found that estrogen induced the shift of the transcriptomes from the vehicle-treated control. Moreover, we have discovered three previously unidentified epithelial cell populations that may play an essential role in the oviduct during reproduction. However, how estrogen modulates the function in different epithelial cell population during various stages of the pregnancy establishment is still to be determined.

Cultural transmission: Seattle and its first Stanley Cup

Primary Author: John Wong

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Education

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Located in the scenic Puget Sound, Seattle emerged as a major West Coast city of the United States in the first two decades of the twentieth century. Although a transcontinental railway linking the West Coast with the rest of the country, sports, as a popular culture endeavor, remained very much regional in scope in the early 20th century. In 1915, the city joined the Pacific Coast Hockey Association, a major professional hockey league that included franchises in both Canada and the United States. Only two seasons later, the Seattle team captured the Stanley Cup – the first American city to win the prestigious trophy which originated as a championship award for the Dominion of Canada. Drawing on boh primary and secondary sources, this presentation argues that Seattle provides a useful case study on cultural transmission running vertically rather than horizontally despite the presence of an international border in North America at the turn of the twentieth century. Moreover, cultural transmission was not necessarily a south-to-north phenomenon as many in Canada, to this day, are so apprehensive about the possibility of being slowly but surely absorbed as the fifty-first state in the American republic as American popular culture seemingly crossing the border unimpeded.

Spectra of hot stars using Hubble Space Telescope

Primary Author: Guy Worthey

Co-Author(s): Islam Khan

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Arts and Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Libraries of stellar spectra find a plethora of applications, from education to photometric calibration to stellar population synthesis. We present low resolution spectra obtained with STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph) of 40 stars spanning 0.2 to 1.0 micrometers in spectral coverage. The stars include normal O-type stars, helium-burning stars, and PAGB (post-asymptotic giant branch) stars. Observations through three low resolution gratings, G230LB, G430L, and G750L enabled coverage of the wide wavelength interval. Cosmic ray hits, fringing in the red, and scattered light corrections were applied. Cross-correlation was used to bring the spectra to a common, final, zero velocity wavelength scale. Finally, synthetic stellar spectra were used to estimate line of sight dust extinction to each star, and a five-parameter dust extinction model was fit, or a one-parameter fit in the case of low extinction. The fitted dust extinction model showed considerable variation from star to star, indicating variations in dust properties for different lines of sight. Interstellar absorption lines are present in most stars, notably once-ionized magnesium. The spectra are available at MAST (Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes) and the CDS (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg). Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number HST-GO-14141.001-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Monoamine oxidase B mediates prostate cancer-stromal microenvironment interactions

Primary Author: Boyang (Jason) Wu

Co-Author(s): Jingjing (Peter) Li

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Developing cancer cells need crucial support from the surrounding non-cancer cells, also called stromal cells, which fuel cancer cells by sending a variety of stimuli to promote cancer cell growth and invasion. In a reciprocal manner, stromal cells receive signals from cancer cells during progression and transform to a more active status, called reactive stroma, to further promote cancer development. This complex and dynamic interactive process between the two types of cells is seen in most if not all cancer types, including prostate cancer. Re-educating the stromal cells, as a way to intervene in the crosstalk between cancer cells and stromal cells, has proven to be a feasible approach to inhibit cancer cell growth and impede malignant disease progression in animal models. Here we analyzed a critical enzyme called monoamine oxidase B (MAOB), which triggers oxidative stress in prostate cancer stromal cells. We found higher levels of MAOB in stromal cells associated with prostate cancer compared to normal prostates. Strikingly, genetic silencing or deletion of MAOB in stromal cells significantly reduced the adjacent prostate tumor growth in experimental mice. We also showed that MAOB switches stromal cells to an inflammatory, cancer-promoting state, which mediates efficient crosstalk between prostate cancer cells and stromal cells through activation of select chemokine molecules, CXCL12 and CXCL13. Further, treatment of stromal cells with a clinically-used MAOB inhibitor abrogated prostate tumor growth in mice. Collectively, these results provide insights into developing new translational strategies to effectively limit prostate cancer growth and progression.

Idaho statewide freight data & commodity supply-chain analysis

Primary Author: Wenjun Wu

Co-Author(s): Eric Jessup

Suzette Galinato

Faculty Sponsor: Eric L. Jessup, Suzette Galinato

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

This research project addressed the freight data gap that currently exists regarding available statewide freight and commodity flow information by developing and implementing a statewide freight flow survey. By interviewing practitioners from 7 key industries: Agricultural, & Food Processing, Forest Products/Construction, Computer& Electronics Manufacturing, Healthcare Services, Mining/Minerals, Transportation/Equipment Manufacturing, and Warehousing/Distribution Centers, this research provides detailed analysis for those major supply-chains supporting the state’s freight economy. Supply chains of those industries are described, include where are the commodities come from, go to, and modes of transportation used. Trucking is the most used transportation mode in Idaho, it carries products from farm/forest/mines/ factories to processing planets and markets. It also provides connections between modes. Rail and water are the other two popular modes. Weight characteristics of the shipments are collected and listed, trucks weight varies across commodities but most of them are within the state limit of 80,000 pounds. Key factors in transportation that would impact the supply chain are identified. Timing and availability of truck, barge, and rail cars are the most important features in the transportation. Seasonality of the transportation is also analyzed.

Persuasion strategies in HPV vaccination promotion among young adults: A systematic review of published literature from 2006 to 2018

Primary Author: Xizhu Xiao

Co-Author(s):  Ka Lai Lee

Faculty Sponsor: Porismita Borah

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI), which is responsible for various serious diseases including genital warts and cervical cancer. Despite the effectiveness of HPV vaccination and the tremendous effort of interventions, the uptake rate of the vaccine remains unsatisfactory. President’s Cancer Panel Report further appealed that effective strategies are highly needed to target eligible young adults. Therefore, this study examined theory-driven persuasion strategies and framing techniques used in HPV vaccination promotion that targeted young adults from over a decade of published literature. A total of 30 studies were included in the review. The results revealed that two categories of persuasion strategies that either focus on strengthening persuasion or addressing resistance were adopted in previous studies. The most commonly used strategies were “making message more persuasive” and “addressing resistance directly via providing guarantees.” Results also showed that among framing techniques, gain vs. loss framing and prevention framing were the most commonly employed. However, the main effects of different framing techniques varied greatly. Moreover, this study unearthed a few concerns in the field of HPV vaccine promotion including insufficiencies in theory use, severe gender bias with an emphasis on female individuals, as well as inadequacies in measuring behavioral outcomes. This systematic review not only provides a comprehensive overview of the literature in HPV vaccine promotion targeted at young adults, but also sheds light on future health campaigns and interventions.

Research opportunities available for Pharm. D. students across the United States

Primary Author: Alina Yanovich

Co-Author(s):  Kimberly McKeirnan

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Kimberly McKeirnan

Primary College/Unit: College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences

Campus: Spokane

Abstract:

Research is one of the key components of moving pharmacy practice forward, so development of research-related skills is essential for building a successful career in the field of pharmacy. The objective of the study is to collect information regarding research opportunities available for PharmD students during their graduate education at all Schools/Colleges of Pharmacy across the United States. By analyzing this data, the research team intends to identify types of research opportunities offered and to detect those activities that provide the most benefit for PharmD students in their development as professionals. At least one official representative from each accredited Schools/College of Pharmacy in the U.S. was contacted via email requesting completion of a survey using Qualtrics survey platform. Survey questions were developed to request relevant information regarding the pharmacy program and educational curriculum as well as success of their students in the area of research. Out of 153 currently accredited PharmD programs, representatives from 78 (51%) responded to the survey. Representatives from 59 programs (39%) fully completed the survey and representatives from 19 programs (12%) completed the survey in part. Preliminary data analysis shows that 76 of the responding PharmD programs (50%) have research opportunities available for PharmD students, 16 of which (21%) have research as a mandatory component of their curriculum. The deeper analysis of received responses will evaluate success of the offered opportunities across the U.S. and potentially propose innovative ways to enhance research strategies and spectrum of the opportunities provided for the PharmD students at WSU.

JEN-TEN premiere

Primary Author: GregYasinitsky

Primary College/Unit: College of Arts and Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): School of Music

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Greg Yasinitsky, WSU Regents Professor of Music, completed a commission to create a new musical work in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Jazz Education Network, arguably the most important international academic organization for jazz. JEN-TEN, Yasinitsky’s new piece, was premiered in January of 2019 at the international conference of the Jazz Education Network. Yasinitsky conducted the JEN All Star Big Band in the premiere, which included some of the most acclaimed jazz musicians in the world including trumpeter Sean Jones (Jazz at Lincoln Center, Peabody Conservatory, NYO Jazz at Carnegie Hall), Pharerz Whitted (Chicago Youth Symphony Jazz Orchestra), Liesl Whitaker (US Army Jazz Ambassadors), Todd Stoll (Jazz at Lincoln Center); saxophonists Roxy Coss (Women in Jazz Organization, Juilliard School), Claire Daly (Downbeat Critics Poll award winner), Jeff Coffin (Grammy Award Winner, Dave Mathews Band,), Caleb Chapman (Soundhouse), and Julius Tolentino (Christian McBride Big Band, Jazz at Lincoln Center); trombonist Francisco Torres (Pancho Sanchez, Disney, Big Phat Band), bassist Bob Sinacrope (LaPorta Jazz Award winner), and Monika Herzig (SHEROES) and more. JEN-TEN was premiered at the keynote session of the JEN conference and received and enthusiastic, standing ovation. JEN-TEN will be published by the Jazz Education Network and made available in perpetuity to the JEN membership.

LIFT: Because student success is a priority

Primary Author: Denise Yost

Co-Author(s):  Laura Hill

Samantha Swindell

Katie Forsythe

Primary College/Unit: College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The LIFT Faculty Development Fellowship Program (Learn. Inspire. Foster. Transform.) at Washington State University (WSU) supports student success through classroom implementation of resilience-building strategies. These brief pedagogical and behavioral interventions increase student retention and persistence to degree through enhanced empowerment, engagement, and connection. Through a collaborative learning experience, LIFT faculty explore, adapt, and adopt evidence-based active learning and behavioral interventions in their teaching in a capacity-building effort to create culture change. In this manner, LIFT faculty represent a diverse group of innovators who are leading a university-wide effort to create the “transformational student experience”.? The LIFT Faculty Development Program is one component of a larger student success initiative at WSU (grant awarded in 2016). The overarching goal of the funded, 5-year Transformational Change Initiative (TCI) grant is to support students throughout their undergraduate careers by creating supportive learning environments that allow them to develop academically, emotionally, and socially.?LIFT faculty support this goal by transforming learning environments university-wide using empirically supported interventions, including experiential pedagogies that foster students’ engagement and behavioral interventions that foster students’ sense of purpose, connection and belonging, values-based decision-making, and growth mindset.?In addition to LIFT, a parent handbook, peer-facilitated mentoring program on experiential learning, and a comprehensive research plan are all primary components of TCI.? Headed into our third year of LIFT implementation, we present our guiding principles and theory of action, implementation metrics to-date, and strategies for continued adoption and replication.

Monitoring flowering in cool-season crops using proximal and aerial remote sensing techniques

Primary Author: Chongyuann Zhang

Faculty Sponsor: Sindhuja Sankaran

Primary College/Unit:nCollege of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): College of Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Time and duration of flowering period are two of the important selection criteria in plant breeding, as these traits describe the robustness of the variety in escaping stress (drought) and contribute to high yield potential. Visual assessment is a standard protocol used for phenotyping flowering, which can be low-throughput and subjective, and limit the frequency of data acquisition. To address these limitations, high-throughput phenotyping technologies for flower detection was developed and applied to four cool-season crops, including pea, chickpea, canola, and camelina, in this study. Two sensing methods (proximal and aerial sensing) were used to collect data with visible, near infrared, and multispectral cameras. The results showed that lower flying altitude is needed to image small flowers (?15 – 30 m above the ground level), compared to assessment of other traits (e.g. canopy area and plant vigor). Results from canola data acquired using RGB camera (2017) demonstrated that positive linear correlations were found between proximal and aerial data, as well as between sensing data and visual ratings (P < 0.0001). Currently, more comprehensive data analysis on all crops are being performed to assess the feasibility of phenotyping flowers using sensing techniques. With the right sensor, data acquisition protocol, and image processing protocol, high-throughput phenotyping techniques can improve the throughput and objectivity during phenotyping in plant breeding programs.

Preparation of smart poly (lactic acid) inspired by Vitrimer chemistry: shape memory, light emitting, and toughening

Primary Author: Shuai Zhang

Faculty Sponsor: Jinwen Zhang

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Vitrimer is a new class of reprocessable crosslinked polymer which has been defined as the third type of polymers besides thermosets and thermoplastic, and combines the advantages of both polymers. In this work, we demonstrated a simple method for preparation of smart PLA via the curing of a GSE vitrimer prepolymer inside PLA matrix. The GSE prepolymer was synthesized via the polymerization of glycerol, succinic anhydride, and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) with a molar ratio of 0.5:0.5:1 and compounded with PLA in a mini extruder. It was found that a soft and crosslinked vitrimer phase was formed in PLA matrix, which provided excellent shape memory property and increased 500% elongation of PLA. In addition, a strong fluorescence was observed in the prepared smart PLA under UV irradiation, due to the AIE mechanism of GSE prepolymer. This work opens a new direction of PLA modification to prepare smart material and may broad PLA to many application fields, such as 4D printing, sensor, etc.

Quantitative impact of catastrophe risk insurance on community resilience

Primary Author: Jie Zhao

Faculty Sponsor: Ji Yun Lee

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Catastrophe risk insurance is an important risk management tool to protect the businesses and residences from excessive property losses against natural disasters. Recently, there has been a growing recognition that catastrophe insurance plays a significant role in community resilience in that (a) it allows policy-holders to transfer risks and to be prepared for potential risks and (b) it expedites the recovery of the damaged buildings following a disaster. Most of the studies to date have assessed the effect of catastrophe insurance on community resilience qualitatively or have incorporated its impacts using simple statistical models. Moreover, while it’s important and promising, the effect of individual policy-holder’s decision on insurance purchase has yet to be investigated in any depth. This research proposes a quantitative framework for assessing the effects of catastrophe risk insurance on community resilience by explicitly incorporating homeowners’ purchase behaviors towards insurance. The proposed framework consists of two stages: (a) pre-disaster individual-level decision model that describes individual homeowners’ decisions on insurance coverage based on the maximum expected utility model and (b) post-disaster community recovery model based on homeowners’ pre- and post-disaster actions. The proposed framework is demonstrated with two residential communities in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. The results show that insurance may play a key role in improving community resilience especially when ex-post government assistance is not available. The study will provide guidance on how catastrophe risk insurance can be used in a broad resilience planning to achieve its long-term resilience goals.

The major drivers of change in cataloging

Primary Author: Lihong Zhu

Primary College/Unit: Libraries

Associated College(s)/Unit(s): Libraries

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

What are the major drivers of change in the current landscape of cataloging? Here, the drivers of change refer to those factors which bring changes in the overall landscape; they can originate from the outer ring of macro environment or within the inner ring of micro environment. It is critical to understand the major drivers of change since they will have potential impact on all aspects in cataloging, including standards, best practices, technology, workflows, and staffing. This study focused on three research questions: (1) What are the major drivers of change in the current landscape of cataloging? (2) What are current trends in cataloging? (3) What strategies and skills that catalogers should have for implementing changes in cataloging? To focus on the most recent discussion and development, the author studied published peer-reviewed journal articles on this research topic from 2015 to 2018. In addition, the author reviewed the reference lists of the retrieved journal articles, and browsed the websites of conferences and organizations in library and information science to search for presentations, proceedings, and other web documentations related to this research topic, limiting the publication/updating dates to 2015-2018.

Creative abstract

Form Follows Subject: Design Begins with an Intent

By Cho, KyeongSook

Representation of a form juxtaposes the dual aspects of concrete and abstract aspects of reality. The Italian word “Designo” means intent. It is the intent–the truth or essence of the thought–that constitutes the real values of a designed object. The abstract concept is the essential: more real than physical reality. 1)

The two creative dresses, “Hidden beauty” and “The life in your eyes,” demonstrate the theory that form follows subject. Creation of “Hidden…” emanated from the question of where beauty is. The emphasis on outside beauty results in neglect of the whole person. This design reveals a message that a person cannot be considered truly beautiful without inner beauty.

“The Life…” conveys that only eyes with truth, goodness, and beauty allow us to stand firmly in the middle of the complex journey of life. The circular shapes incorporated in the dress represent the physical reality of the human eyes. The light color palette utilized is symbolic of the bright side of life.

These fabrics were developed using free motion stitches, creating a soft yet sharp contrast of textures. The variation in stitch density resulting from this technique reveals the wearer’s skin, a hidden beauty. Through the projects, she acknowledged the necessity not only to observe the appearance of an object but also to extract its true nature into a form.

1) Acevedo, C., Blossom, N., Melcher, M. (2005). Engaging meaning in the built environment through the design process. Unpublished manuscript.

he drug will easily diffuse through the other two layers.  Thus, the topic under study is that of diffusion through the stratum corneum.

Each drug has a different chemical structure to it. Some of these structures are more permeable than others. For example, drugs of high water and oil solubility tend to be more permeable to the skin than drugs with low water and oil solubility. The permeability of skin is also highly pH dependent. Due to these unique characteristics of the skin, diffusion of drugs through it has become a difficult process.

The diffusion model described in this research can, and has, been applied to several different types of drugs, such as nicotine, herbal supplements for weight loss and hormones for contraceptive purposes. The end result of this research project is to design a transdermal patch which releases insulin at the precise rates necessary.

Scientific abstract

Diffusion of Drugs Through Human Skin via Transdermal Patches

By Manoranjan, Valipuram S.

The permeability of human skin has been studied for many years and yet it is still incompletely understood. The skin is a unique organ in that it acts as a shield to the body protecting it from environmental toxins. This shield, so to speak, is made up of three layers; the stratum corneum, or horny layer, the epidermis and the dermis. The upper most layer, the stratum corneum is the most impermeable of all the layers. It is suggested that once a drug can diffuse through the stratum corneum layer t