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2019 abstracts

For GPSA Research Exposition

Enhancing chondrogenesis of adipose derived stem cells through temporal supplementation of dexamethasone, TGF-b3, ascorbic acid and their combinations

Primary Author: Haneen Abusharkh

Faculty Sponsor: Bernard Van Wie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Articular cartilage (AC) is an avascular thin tissue that lines moving joints. The lack of blood vessels makes it incapable of regenerating upon injury, leading to osteoarthritis (OA), the most common joint disease in the US. There is currently no cure for OA and available treatments, including knee replacement surgery, are incapable of restoring the native structure and function of AC.

Tissue engineering techniques and the potential of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) to undergo chondrogenic differentiation are promising for developing a therapy for OA. We hypothesize that the temporal addition of multiple growth factors (GFs) enhances the chondrogenesis of ASCs, the process of forming healthy cartilage. Many GFs, including proteins and vitamins, can play a role in chondrogenesis. In this study, the role of three different GFs, TGF-b3 (T), dexamethasone (D) and ascorbic acid (A), their binary combinations, DA, DT and TA, and a combination of the three factors, DTA, on ASC chondrogenesis has been investigated as a function of time. An additional experimental set to test the temporal effect of GFs supplementation was conducted where ASC micromass cultures were supplemented with DT for the first three days, DTA from day 3 until day 7, and D until day 25. ASC differentiation and chondrogenesis were evaluated by comparing mRNA gene expression of chondrogenic markers and quantifying the major biomarkers of healthy cartilage, i.e., Collagen (Col) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). Our findings indicate that temporal addition caused significantly increased Col and GAG contents compared to the majority of the other treatments.

Estimating groundwater contribution to a throughflow lake using stable isotope hydrology

Primary Author: Ayman Alharbi

Faculty Sponsor: Kent Keller

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Whether the ultimate goal be water use for potable supplies, restoration and ecological function, downstream flows, or other beneficial use, an accurate hydrologic budget is essential to lake management. Hydrologists have many tools to quantify surface inflows and outflows, but groundwater monitoring may require networks of wells or piezometers that are expensive to implement. Therefore, groundwater is often treated as the residual term in water balance equations; this yields only a net estimation and pushes all accumulated uncertainties into the groundwater term. We test the utility of stable isotope analysis (SIA) to provide a more accurate and economically viable approach to a lake water mass balance. Our study area is Liberty Lake, a throughflow lake with a large catchment area in eastern Washington, and for which we have substantial hydrologic data to test the efficacy of this approach. We used stable isotope δ2H and δ18O in lake water, inflow streams, springs, and precipitation in combination with meteorological data to infer the lake water balance. Preliminary results show that the groundwater contribution fluctuates and has a significant effect in the lake budget. Additionally, lake water budget is susceptible to a change in snowmelt and precipitation, especially during late winter and spring. This study is the first effort using mass balance stable isotope approach in a lake in this region. SIA highlights the prominence of ground and surface water contribution for making responsible decisions regarding the environmental management of the lake.

Content analysis of corporate social responsibility communication via social media: a study within the apparel industry

Primary Author: April Alley

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Due to higher demand in transparency between corporations and consumers there has been an increase in promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) campaigns on social media. But not all campaigns are successful to communicate CSR. Therefore, to understand why some of CRS messages have more attention from consumers, the study conducted used content analysis to answer the following research questions: (1) What kind of CSR images/messages do people pay attention to in social media? And (2) What type of emotional responses evoke consumers to react to a select few CSR messages?”

METHOD

The content analysis was conducted based on a literature review of peer-reviewed articles using selective attention and medium richness theories. Articles were chosen based on the research of consumers’ responsiveness to CSR social media posts both in and out of the fashion industry.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

When analyzing written content and deciphering the themes, there was a clear trend with researchers’ findings which related to consumers wanting honest messages with informative content. Furthermore, it is suggested that CSR social media posts should be presented in a way that creates a positive message. Along with the messages assisting consumers in understanding the real environmental issues the fashion industry is facing and how the industry/company is helping combat these issues. Overall, to gain consumers trust the posts have to be authentic and not feel like the brand is trying to just repair their brand image.

The influence of context on infant electroencphalography: an examination of brain activity at rest and play

Primary Author: Alana Anderson

Faculty Sponsor: Sammy Perone

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Infants learn by exploring objects through play. They do so by touching, mouthing, and/or looking at objects. Infant object exploration is known to shape perceptual and cognitive abilities. This early exploration provides the foundation for cognitive abilities later in life. Caregivers advance infant play by directing their attention toward objects. While the impact of this everyday parent-infant interaction is well-studied, little is known about how these contexts influence the infant brain.

METHOD

This study examines infant brain waves using electroencephalography (EEG) during baseline free play with a parent. Behaviors during play were coded to evaluate infant object exploration and maternal support for exploration.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Results show that the infant brain is organized differently at baseline than it is during free play. Infant object exploration during free play and their mother’s ability to guide the infant’s attention both were related to brain activity in frontal regions. This is important since changes in frontal brain activity has been associated with cognitive abilities later in life. Furthermore, infant object exploration was associated with baseline brain activity at multiple electrode sites down the center of the scalp. This suggests that a specific brain organization in one context (baseline) more easily accommodates object exploration in another context (play). This research describes the impact everyday developmental contexts, such as free play with a parent, have on infant brain activity. A better understanding of how object exploration during free play impacts infant brain development will lead to more effective programs to encourage healthy development.

Fashion speaks: Creating meaning through clothing in the Atlanta Lolita and Japanese street fashion community

Primary Author: Chancy Anderson

Faculty Sponsor: Clare Wilkinson

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The mid 2000s saw a rapid increase in the popularity of Japanese street fashion, particularly Lolita fashion, a unique fusion of Victorian era dress and various Japanese street styles. This research explores the vibrant Atlanta Lolita fashion community and how its members mold their identity and create meaning through dress. I analyze faux pas in light of current trends in communication and material culture theory, particularly Roland Barthes’ communication model of dress. This research project is important to the field of Anthropology because there has been no previous research carried out on the topic. This research also challenges how researchers conceptualize language and dress and adds to overall framework of the communication model of clothing.

I worked to determine how members of the Atlanta Lolita fashion community communicate through clothing choice, how choices create meaning and forge identity, and how members maneuver through a community with anonymous internet policing. The data collection occurred between November 2013 and August 2014, with follow-up collection in Spring 2018 in Atlanta, Georgia. I utilized participant observation, informal interviewing, and digital forum analysis as my primary data collection methods.

I ultimately argue that fashion choice is a contextual type of communication and is a clear form of symbolic language. When analyzing community dress and member communication, I observed a significant emphasis on the fashion faux pas in community discourse and the negative impact they have on member community social status. I also found that community internet fashion-policing greatly influences member status and identity formation.

Social media use for resolving cognitive cissonance curing the apparel product purchase process

Primary Author: Rebecca Anderson

Faculty Sponsor: Jihyeong Son

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Consumers are often faced with cognitive dissonance, or uncertain feelings about a product, during various stages of the shopping process. If these feelings of dissonance are not overcome, a consumer might decide against the purchase a product, causing companies to lose a sale.

The purpose of this study is to examine at what point during the apparel adoption process consumers are experiencing the most cognitive dissonance, and to determine how consumers are using social media to reduce their dissonance.

This study employs the consumer adoption process model and cognitive dissonance theory in order to demonstrate the inconsistencies between the beliefs and actions consumers hold during the various stages of the shopping process.

By snowball sampling, 10 face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with participants in the Pacific Northwest, averaging 15 minutes each. Content analysis was applied for reviewing 10 qualitative interview data based on the consumer adoption process stages and cognitive dissonance theory.

Findings revealed that consumers most often use social media to reduce cognitive dissonance felt during the pre-purchase stages of the adopting process such as the knowledge and persuasion periods. Consumers used Instagram and Snapchat the most to quell uncertainties related to product style, price or quality before making purchases. Consumers similarly used Instagram and other social media websites in the dissonance and confirmation stages of post-purchase stages for peer substantiation of their purchases.

Therefore, retailers and marketers improve their business models, showcasing their products and product information to reduce consumers’ dissonance during the purchasing processes.

Efficacy and economic viability of organic herbicides

Primary Author: Aaron Appleby

Faculty Sponsor: Lynne Carpenter-Boggs

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Organic agriculture suffers from a dearth of cost-effective weed management methods and materials.  The difficulty and expense of managing weeds is cited as a major barrier to transitioning into/and for successful organic production.  Newly registered organic herbicides have entered the market and may help organic producers effectively and economically manage weeds.  Very little research has been done on those newly registered organic herbicides, and previous research shows organic herbicides to not be an effective tool at removing above ground biomass of weeds.  Without proper research on the topic, organic farmers are hesitant to spend money on new products that may or may not work as intended.

METHOD

We hypothesize that newly registered organic herbicides are as effective at removing aboveground biomass as mechanical weed management techniques.  Each of the herbicide treatments, contains a different active ingredient: d-limonene, eugenol, acetic acid, and a mix of capric and caprylic acid.  Herbicides and hand weeding were evaluated on their ability to remove aboveground biomass of both Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

We found that all treatments had significantly less weed cover than the do-nothing control.  However, Suppress®, with an active ingredient composed of the combination of capric and caprylic acid, was as effective at removing aboveground biomass of weeds compared to hand weeding.  By adding an effective organic herbicide to existing weed management strategies, organic producers will be able to reduce weed pressure, till less often, decrease greenhouse gas emissions, and improve production and profitability.

Effects of drought on crop revenue : a study of nine western states in the United States

Primary Author: Ballav Aryal

Faculty Sponsor: Jonathan Yoder

Primary College/Unit: Interdisciplinary

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The conventional drought narrative is that water curtailment induced by drought reduces soil moisture and reservoir storage, which reduces crop yield and subsequently reduces crop revenue. As the consequences of the recent California drought have unfolded, such narrative has been in question. Farmers in California generated state high crop revenue of $34 billion in 2013, which was one of the most severe drought year in state history. This study aims to investigate the economic effects of drought severity on crop revenue. A theoretical model of the relationship between drought and crop revenue based on economic theory is developed and a testable hypothesis is derived for empirical testing.

METHOD

The hypothesis is that if the market demand for crops is not very responsive to price changes, negative revenue effects of a decrease in production can be offset by an increase in price. This hypothesis is tested using crop revenue data obtained from the National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) and the Palmer Modified Severity Index (PMDI) data, specifically curated for each of the nine states under consideration – AZ, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA and WY.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The results from time series regression analysis with the Newey-West estimator shows that the total quantity of a crop produced decreases during drought for all nine states, but the revenue does not necessarily decrease and may even increase for some crops. This implies that the revenue effects of drought severity are unevenly distributed across crops with different price responsiveness.

Mechanisms of pathogen entry into tick cells

Primary Author: Hanen Baggar

Faculty Sponsor: Susan Noh

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Many tick-borne diseases are caused by intracellular bacterial pathogens. Methods to prevent these diseases in humans and animals rely on preventing tick exposure and are partially effective and difficult to implement. For successful transmission, these pathogens must enter tick cells, the mechanism of which is entirely unknown. Understanding these mechanisms of entry may lead to widely applicable methods to prevent tick borne diseases. Using Francisella novicida, which colonizes and is transmitted by Dermacentor andersoni ticks, we are determining if pathogen entry into tick cells is receptor-mediated or occurs via macropinocytosis.

METHODS

Using D. andersoni cells (DEA100), we determined the rate of entry of inert beads and will compare this to the rate of F. novicida entry. After various incubation times to allow for pathogen or bead entry, the percent of infected cells is determined by confocal microscopy. Cells are then treated with ameloride, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD).

RESULTS

Bead uptake in DAE100 cells is rapid, with 69% and 100% of cells containing beads after 5 and 15 minutes of incubation, respectively. Using the macropinocytosis inhibitor, ameloride, there was a 20% reduction in bead uptake at 5 minutes of incubation. Using receptor-mediated endocytosis inhibitors, MDC and MβCD, and there was no reduction in the bead uptake at any time point. We conclude that beads enter DAE100 cells by macropinocytosis, though other mechanisms or partial efficacy of ameloride are possible. Next we will determine the rate of F. novicida uptake and the effect of these inhibitors on pathogen uptake.

International students and the challenge of advocacy

Primary Author: Shima Bahramvash Shams

Faculty Sponsor: Von Walden

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

International students make a huge contribution to any graduate school, but they often are challenged with unique issues. Continually changing federal policies affect international students, often negatively. To be their advocate, one needs to know about the exact consequences of these policies on their lives, and therefore getting information about their lives is important. One of the most common approaches to obtain information about their lives and challenges is asking them to share their stories. However, international students are often reticent for a number of reasons. In a research study, we investigate the following questions: what are the barriers that adversely impact international graduate student at WSU? What are the resources utilized by international students to address adverse issues they face? What are the factors that deter or encourage students to utilize resources at WSU? The study had two steps, focus group and photo-voice session. First, in a focus group, ten volunteer international graduate student from Washington State University discussed their concerns, different approach to reach out, and the importance of advocacy. Second, in a separate session, participants were asked to take some photos about their concerns and explain to the group how each photo is tied to their problems. Our results show that not having enough information about their own rights, being shy, being afraid of unknown consequences to them are among the reasons international students hesitate to share their stories. Photo-voice was found very helpful for participants to elaborate their problems and discuss them comfortably.

Hulled barley varieties exhibit better puffing properties compared to hull-less barley varieties

Primary Author: Elvis Baidoo

Faculty Sponsor: Girish Ganjyal

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Majority of barley production is utilized in ways other than direct human consumption, such as for brewing, animal feed and malting. A health claim recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration regarding dietary fiber in barley known as beta-glucan has triggered interest among consumers. Further, consumption of barley is known to offer health benefits including lowered blood cholesterol, improved insulin response and immune system enhancement. Hulled barley grains are enclosed in tough husks while hull-less types only have a thin covering.

This research studied the feasibility of processing direct expanded snacks using barley developed by WSU breeders. Three hull-less barley varieties – ‘Havener’, ‘Meg’s Song’ and ‘09WA-265.12’, and two hulled varieties – ‘Lyon’ and ‘Muir’, were tested by extrusion processing. Breakfast cereals, baby foods, and pet foods are examples of extruded foods and are characterized by unique shapes and textures. The ability of food materials to “puff” during extrusion is vital in developing those unique textures.

Barley in general was observed to possess low puffing abilities in reference to other cereals like corn. The hulled varieties were observed to possess clearly higher puffing abilities compared to the hull-less varieties. They however, required higher energy input to expand during extrusion. Conversely, the hulled varieties had noticeably lower beta-glucan contents. One hull-less variety, ‘Havener’, was found to show moderate puffing, considerable amounts of beta-glucan and low discoloration of products after extrusion. These findings could guide industry in manufacturing nutritious puffed snacks using barley while consumers benefit from its health benefits.

Controlled release of sodium bicarbonate and doxorubicin on osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell viability using polycaprolactone coatings

Primary Author: Dishary Banerjee

Faculty Sponsor: Susmita Bose

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The pH in normal non-malignant tissues remains slightly alkaline in the range of around 7.2 – 7.5. However, it decreases significantly to around 6.5 – 6.9 in the extra cellular matrix in vicinity of a malignant solid tumor.

METHOD

This study intends to test the hypothesis, if the neutralization of acidic pHs in vicinity of remnant bone tumor cells after excision of the tumor will inhibit resurgence, and decrease possibilities of further metastases, commonly observed in osteosarcoma incidents. Comparison of the effects of bicarbonate and doxorubicin in PCL and calcium phosphate coated titanium alloys has been studied on release kinetics and in vitro osteoblast and osteosarcoma cell viability. The novelty of this study lies in the development of sodium bicarbonate encapsulated unique load bearing implant, for post-excision application in a cancerous bone, without any adverse effects on normal bone cells.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Our results show that doxorubicin effectively kills osteosarcoma cells, however, it also has adverse effects on the non-target healthy bone cells. Increase in local pH by release of sodium bicarbonate was also noted, which reduced acidosis of the micro-environment, alleviating the proliferation of bone cancer cells, whereas the healthy bone cells quickly stabilized in the alkaline environment. We believe the study based on the effects of chemistry, environment and polymer-drug interactions on bone cancer cells would lead to a beneficial understanding for designing in vivo drug delivery vehicles to reduce post-excision metastases in solid tumors.

Realization of a supersolid-like state in a Bose-Einstein condensate

Primary Author: Thomas Bersano

Faculty Sponsor: Peter Engels

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

We demonstrate a new method for generating a supersolid-like state which is long-lived and tunable. Supersolids belong to a new class of novel states of quantum matter which hold great potential to produce transformative new technologies and further our understanding of the quantum realm. This elusive state of matter is a quantum fluid which simultaneously flows without resistance while maintaining the well-ordered nature of a crystal. Superfluid behavior is common in ultracold atomic gases and liquid helium, but the supersolid state is only now becoming accessible.

In our experiment, we begin by creating a Bose-Einstein condensate, which is a gas of atoms cooled to near absolute zero where the atoms behave as one super-atom. Then, by illuminating the gas with carefully tuned laser beams, we produce a quantum superposition of left-going and right-going states. These two states manifest as an interference pattern which results in a periodic density of atoms behaving like a supersolid.

We verify the superfluid behavior by observing oscillations between the left-going and right-going states. We show that the populations in each of the momentum states match with theory, the quantum state remains coherent, and that the lifetime of our supersolid-like state is at least ten times longer than obtained by other attempts to produce such a state. We conclude that this quantum state is a useful supersolid implementation which opens the door to further studies into the fluid dynamics and the peculiar quantum properties of this unique state of matter.

Cannabis use is related to self-efficacy but not sleep or pain symptoms among adults prescribed opioids for persistent pain or opioid use disorders

Primary Author: Teresa Bigand

Faculty Sponsor: Marian Wilson

Primary College/Unit: College of Nursing

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Inadequate pain management and sleep difficulties are commonly reported by people using opioids to treat persistent pain (PP) or opioid use disorder (OUD). Cannabis use is reported within these population to manage symptoms. Self-efficacy, the confidence that one can autonomously manage health, can reduce pain levels and improve sleep quality. It is unknown how cannabis use relates to self-efficacy, pain intensity, and sleep quality.

METHOD

Survey data from 150 OUD adults and 150 PP adults were collected with valid, reliable measures of sleep quality, pain intensity, and self-efficacy for symptom management and self-efficacy for managing emotions. A cannabis use questionnaire assessed frequency of cannabis use. Demographics were also collected. Baseline comparisons were made among the two populations using non-parametric analyses. Data were analyzed using ANOVA’s with patient type (OUD vs. PP) entered as a covariate.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

PP adults were older, had more education, poorer sleep quality, greater pain intensity and reported less frequent use of cannabis than OUD adults. Cannabis use was not related to differences in self-reported pain intensity, sleep quality, or confidence in symptom control. Higher cannabis use frequency was associated with lower self-efficacy for managing emotions. This finding suggests that adults who use cannabis frequently have lower confidence in ability to self-manage emotions and may need education on alternative coping techniques. Future studies should focus on targeted interventions that reduce symptom burdens while enhancing self-efficacy.

Detailing hypothalamic alternative polyadenylation events following acute cannabis exposure in male rats

Primary Author: Julianna Brutman

Faculty Sponsor: Jon Davis

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

In the United States, cannabis usage has nearly doubled in the past decade. This increase in popularity mirrors the legalization of cannabis for both recreational and medicinal purposes, the latter offering novel therapeutic treatments for cachexic patients in need of appetite stimulants. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which cannabis sativa stimulates appetite. In this context, a growing body of evidence supports a critical role for RNA biogenesis in the hypothalamus, the brain’s endogenous appetite center, as an environmentally adaptive mechanism that regulates appetite. We recently identified alternative polyadenylation (APA) as a functional genomic unit capable of regulating information flow from genome to phenotype. Here, we hypothesized that cannabis exposure stimulates hypothalamic APAs to modify feeding behavior.

METHODS

To address this contention, we employed a novel Whole Transcriptome Termini Site Sequencing (WTTS-Seq) approach to simultaneously measure differentially expressed APAs (DE-APAs) on multiple RNA biotypes in the hypothalamus of adult male Long Evans rats following acute vapor cannabis exposure.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Our WTTS-Seq analysis mapped approximately 59 unique hypothalamic DE-APAs in cannabis exposed rats relative to air controls 1hr after exposure. Notably, we detected DE-APAs on transcripts implicated in synaptic function such as Slc6a3, the dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine production. Importantly, we found that reduced DE-APA insertion led to decreased hypothalamic expression of Slc6a3, suggesting that reduced APA usage functionally alters mRNA abundance. Collectively, these data highlight DE-APAs as a novel genetic mechanism that directs hypothalamic RNA biogenesis following cannabis exposure.

Ligand-directed bystander-assisted Immunotherapy

Primary Author: Anthony Burt

Faculty Sponsor: Rock Mancini

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Imiquimod is an FDA approved immunotherapy for external malignancies. Due to the threat of systemic inflammation, Imiquimod is currently not suitable for the treatment of solid internal tumors. It is the aim of this work to rationally design a ligand-directed scaffold to selectively release Imiquimod into the tumor microenvironment triggered by ligand-receptor interactions, thereby expanding the clinical applications of the immunotherapeutic. Specificity will be accomplished by incorporating a targeting ligand into the scaffold that directs the prodrug to overexpressed biomarker receptors. To date, a biotin-directed prodrug scaffold has been synthesized and shown abrogated activity compared to the parent drug Imiquimod.

METHOD

A five-step convergent synthesis was utilized to prepare the biotin-directed prodrug incorporating a novel self-immolative spacer. In Vitro results utilizing the RAW-Blue murine macrophage cell line that tethers an immune response to a colorimetric readout was used to determine efficacy of the prodrug. Future work will use UV/VIS analysis to examine the kinetics of Imiquimod release from the prodrug in the presence of the biotin receptor avidin.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

A proof-of-concept biotin-directed prodrug scaffold has been created and has demonstrated decreased immune stimulation compared to Imiquimod. Future work will demonstrate that receptor recognition of the prodrug increases the release of Imiquimod. These results will vertically advance the field of cancer immunotherapy by expanding the efficacious Imiquimod treatment to solid tumors. The results of the preliminary scaffold open the door to exploit a variety of malignant biomarkers leading to prodrugs tailored to specific malignancies.

Quantifying the energetic cost of movement in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) using GPS collar data

Primary Author: Tony Carnahan

Faculty Sponsor: Charles Robbins

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The advent of radio telemetry and GPS technology has allowed us to quantify bear habitat use and movement. As bear habitat becomes more fragmented with human encroachment, so does the need to understand how bears respond from an ecological energetic perspective. Bears have a limited window during the active season to gain sufficient mass to hibernate the following winter and should limit energetically expensive movements. Searching to find prey or new foraging habitat (e.g. berry patches) or avoiding human activity can influence bear movement costs (kcal/hour).

METHOD

We hypothesize that bears in habitats with food resources that are limited in quantity or quality will use a least-cost path when moving to new food patches. To test this hypothesis, we used indirect calorimetry to measure the caloric expenditure of bears walking at various speeds and slopes on a treadmill. We then used GPS locations for collared bears in Yellowstone National Park to identify and calculate the cost of movement paths. Next, we calculated the least-cost path using starting and ending locations for paths and compared them to the actual paths.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Any loss in the net efficiency of energy gain from not using a least-cost path may indicate that the bear either does not have perfect knowledge of the landscape or other factors, such as human activity, are modifying the bear’s perception of the energy landscape. These approaches will help managers understand movement patterns of bears, how bears perceive their environment, and ultimately the cost of human activities to the well-being of bears.

Scale development: willingness to be employed

Primary Author: Kelvin Chiang

Faculty Sponsor: Babu John Mariadoss

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

This research aims to construct a scale called the willingness to be employed (WTE). It is a construct that reflects potential employees’ willingness to be employed by their potential employers during the recruitment process. It also provide the framework and direction for future studies on employee turnover mitigation at the pre-employment phase.

METHOD

An expert panel of hospitality human resources and hiring managers were consulted, and a list of seven (7) items for WTE were generated. Then, based on existing literatures and face validity, another seven (7) items were added totaling 14 items. An online survey were then administered via Amazon’s MTurk platform. 267 usable responses (51% male and 49% female, all full-time employees) were received.

RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS

Based on the results of the survey, seven items were removed from the list. The remaining seven items for WTE are (in descending order of mean scores): (1) Compensation & Benefits, (2) Working Hours, (3) Work Environment, (4) Company Reputation, (5) Career Development Opportunity, (6) Amount of Work Uncertainty, and (7) Career Adaptability. The Cronbach’s Alpha for WTE is .70 and all purified items are significantly correlated, implying that the construct is valid and reliable.

All WTE factors (besides career adaptability) are controllable by employers if they want to recruit willing talents from today’s competitive job market. Future research studies should focus on validating the WTE scale and to further develop (with more items added to the scale) into a commonly acceptable scale to be used by the industry.

Closing the vaccination gap-heterogenous effects of immunization campaign in Kenya

Primary Author: Youngran Choi

Faculty Sponsor: Thomas L.Marsh

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Vaccines are effective in saving the lives and preventing diseases estimated to be responsible for nearly 25 percent of deaths of children under the age of five worldwide, saving more than 6 million children annually. Despite evident expansion of vaccine coverage, segments of the population in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, are not receiving recommended vaccinations. Understanding the effects of immunization campaigns that influence individual decisions to vaccinate can help policymakers determine drivers to successfully reduce the vaccination gap among target population.

Using recent machine learning techniques such as a causal forest algorithm for program assessment, we explore the effects of immunization campaigns on parents’ decision to vaccinate their children in Kenya. Our aims are to (i) identify the high-risk groups from which the most effective impacts of vaccination campaigns are expected and (ii) offer policymakers insights that can serve as focuses for policy measures to successfully reduce the vaccination gap in the target population group.

We found that person-to-person visit vaccinations campaigns are particularly effective for those who live in remote regions, or regions uncovered by cellphone coverage, or with certain levels of parents’ education, or less than a certain amount of farmland, is an indication of wealth. Our results offer policymakers insights on ways of implementing vaccination campaigns targeting and prioritizing specific groups with certain characteristics. Coordinating the vaccination service delivery with stratified priorities based on the expected impact of the vaccinations can reduce risk of outbreaks in areas with life-threatening diseases.

Characterization of a novel plasmid-encoded factor essential for efficient colonization of host tissues by the Lyme disease spirochete

Primary Author: Michael Crowley

Faculty Sponsor: Troy Bankhead

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

With over 300,000 cases per year, Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. While antibiotic therapies exist, they are only effective when administered soon after exposure, which is challenging given the difficulty of diagnosis and detection of the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi in infected patients. The most dangerous aspect of infection is the pathogen’s ability to disseminate from the blood stream and colonize distal tissues, leading to severe disease manifestations. We aim to better understand the mechanisms of coordinated gene regulation required for this dissemination, which could lead to discovery of new targets for therapies against this debilitating disease.

METHODS

In this study, we generated a series of mutant B. burgdorferi strains each featuring unique alterations to a genomic component referred to as Lp17. The effects of the mutations were assessed in terms of murine infection, as well as RNA and protein expression.

RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS

Our data indicates that bbd07 plays a central role in tissue colonization and pathogenesis by B. burgdorferi in the murine model. A bbd07 mutant strain was unable to colonize heart tissue in mice. This was not observed in immunodeficient mice, indicating a role for bbd07 in evasion of the antibody response. Next, we showed that bbd07 functions as a small RNA that mitigates infectivity and disrupts the surface proteome when overexpressed. These findings indicate that bbd07 sRNA likely functions as a regulator involved in the modulation of surface proteinexpression required for full virulence in the host.

Biomass conversions via different oxidative processes: the effect of reactive oxygen species on lignin degradation

Primary Author: Maryam Davaritouchaee

Faculty Sponsor: Shulin Chen; Rock Mancini

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The environmental impact of fossil fuels and their inevitable depletion have intensified the global effort to develop biomass-derived fuels as alternative energy sources that can reduce the United States’ dependence on external oil imports. However, the key barrier to build a successful biorefinery is the lack of effective yet low-cost technologies for deconstructing biomass to biofuels and biochemicals. Reactive oxygen species offer a novel method for biomass degradation. One bottleneck in this process is that biomass resists degradation. However, biological systems such as termite and fungi can degrade biomass effectively; biomass undergoes radical reactions in these systems. The major gap to be filled through this research was to enlarge the existing knowledge in advanced oxidation processes application for biomass oxidation.

METHOD AND RESULTS

From this perspective, we studied the structural modification of biomass caused by sulfate and superoxide radicals in an aqueous medium. The effects of these two radicals were studied by FTIR, Py-GC/Ms, and GPC. We hypothesize electron-deficient linkages will be cleaved by superoxide radical while electron rich linkages will be affected by sulfate radical. The results reflected ring demethoxylation and side chain oxidation in sulfate radical method and side chain cleavage in superoxide radical method. Taken together, these results indicated sulfate radical with high redox potential started oxidizing sides chain of biomass and superoxide radical which is a strong nucleophile cleavage aromatic rings of lignin. This study validates each radical species degrades biomass in its own way.

Feedback regulation of photosynthesis after chloroplast envelope transporter loss-of-function

Primary Author: Rachael DeTar

Faculty Sponsor: Henning Kunz

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The maintenance of ion gradients across the chloroplast envelope membrane plays a key role in plastid function. Ion gradients regulate osmotic balance and maintain chloroplast shape and membrane architecture. However, little is known about how the chloroplast senses and maintains ion balance. The objective of this work was to understand how loss of ion transport across the chloroplast envelope is sensed and communicated back to the nucleus to avoid negative impacts on photosynthesis.  The working hypothesis was that plastid damage-induced retrograde signaling is used to respond to loss of ion homeostasis in the chloroplast.

METHODS

Researchers studied mutant Arabidopsis thaliana lines for KEA1 and KEA2, two K+/H+ antiporters with redundant function. Loss-of-function for both transporters results in disruption of leaf ion homeostasis and photosynthesis. Researchers used RNA sequencing and differential gene expression analysis to investigate widescale metabolic changes and signaling pathways in kea1kea2 compared to wildtype plants.

RESULTS

The results were that kea1kea2 plants have a significant downregulation of genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis and light harvesting, as also known as Photosynthesis-Associated Nuclear-encoded Genes (PhANGs). Study of kea1kea2gun1 mutants revealed that Genomes Uncoupled 1 (GUN1) mediated retrograde signaling down-regulates the expression PhANGs in response to loss of KEA1 and KEA2, likely to avoid damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. These findings underscore the importance of GUN1-mediated retrograde signaling in responding to diverse plastid stresses, including loss of ion

Misinformation in the news:  a visual guide to news literacy

Primary Author: Shawn Domgaard

Faculty Sponsor: Stacey Hust

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

This study seeks to understand the effects of an infographic with news literacy skills as an intervention on college student’s ability to verify the accuracy of a news story headline.  Media literacy models and theories are applied to the infographic.  First, misinformation is explored along with false news stories, then the importance of news literacy is established, and the effectiveness of infographics as an educational and persuasive device is demonstrated.  This is a between-groups experiment with 30 participants in the treatment group, where they will have an infographic to assist them, and 30 participants in the control group, where they will not have the infographic as an aid. Each group will be asked to verify the accuracy of a mix of false and true news story headlines.   The data will be analyzed through t-test and MANOVA to see the differences between groups, and if there are determining factors contributing to their verification ability.  The hypothesis is an infographic will have a significant impact on participant’s ability to verify the accuracy of a news story headline. This study will contribute to the use of infographics as a news literacy intervention, and show how they may improve news literacy.  This research will show a small curation of existing research, designed and communicated through an infographic, can have a real-world effect with practical implementation.

Controlled synthesis of sulfur-rich polymeric selenium sulfides as promising electrode materials for long-life, high-rate lithium metal batteries

Primary Author: Panpan Dong

Faculty Sponsor: Min-Kyu Song

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is one of the most promising energy storage systems because of the low cost, environmental friendliness, and high theoretical specific capacity of S electrode. However, the unsatisfactory cycle life and poor rate-capability hinder the commercialization of Li/S batteries. This study was aimed to develop selenium (Se)-containing S-rich copolymers as advanced cathodes and investigate the synergistic effect of physical and chemical confinements of S and reaction intermediates within copolymer@carbon composite hosts.

METHOD

We synthesized copolymers through an inverse vulcanization of S with selenium disulfide (SeS2) and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) as comonomers. The as-synthesized copolymer was then infiltrated into porous carbon host (Ketjenblack EC600JD, KB600) via a simple heat treatment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were collected to investigate the molecular structure of copolymers. Coin cells were assembled to evaluate the electrochemical performances of Li/S batteries with these copolymers and copolymer@KB600 composites as cathodes.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

NMR and XPS results show the newly formed bonds of C–S, C–Se and S–Se in novel S-SeS2-DIB copolymers, which effectively alleviates shuttle effects of polysulfides/polyselenides. Due to the synergistic combination of chemical and physical confinement of reaction intermediates in copolymer@KB600, good reversibility for 500 cycles with a low decay rate of 0.0549% per cycle was achieved at 1000 mA g−1. Our results suggest that the combination of chemical incorporation of SeS2 into S-rich copolymer and the physical confinement of carbon networks is a promising strategy for advancing Li/S batteries and their viability for practical applications.

A data-driven analysis of competitive free shipping policies by online retailers

Primary Author: Gihan Edirisinghe

Faculty Sponsor: Chuck Munson

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Category: Business, Communication, & Politial Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Since its introduction in 2005, Amazon Prime has revolutionized home delivery expectations and cost perceptions, and it currently boasts a membership of over 100 million customers. This has caused many of Amazon’s competitors to offer their own free shipping policies. The literature comparing such policies is limited and mostly confined to analytical research and industry reports. We perform a data-driven analysis of the profitability and customer effects of three free shipping policies commonly adopted by online retailers at present.

METHOD

Using a Python-based web crawler, we obtained a unique dataset containing data from more than 80,000 products listed on Amazon.com. We then analyzed the data using non-linear mixed integer programs under different free shipping policies to compare their profitability and effects on customers. We also investigated the best policies for online retailers under different circumstances.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

We find at current industry parameter levels that shipping policies with a membership free shipping component are more profitable than the other policies considered. Our results further indicate that the cost savings experienced by customers significantly vary across different policies based on the customers’ membership status, their online shopping frequency, how quickly they require the products to be delivered, and their willingness to pay shipping fees. We also present alternative forms of common policies that are more profitable for firms and make recommendations on setting optimal membership fee levels and free shipping thresholds under different conditions.

The lyricism of the built environment: the ramps

Primary Author: Hamidreza Esmaeillou

Faculty Sponsor: Omar Al-Hassawi

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Architectural design is the art of creating built-environment and every days of our lives. We might not notice the impact of our living environment in our lives, but studies show the significance of it and it shapes our lives. Approximately 4% of Americans are suffering from depression and in many cases, it is caused by outside circumstances out of their control and or amplified by exterior factors like living environment. Natural light, greeneries, quiet places, colors, materials, shapes, and forms are the main architectural elements that contribute to the quality of daily lives. Architectural design is the art of using these elements. Imaging the placement of the windows in and the orientation of the building; each opening can make a beautiful view and invite natural light to boost your mood. Among these elements stairs and ramps which usually consider only as means of transportation of going from one floor to another. In my research, I will argue that if ramps strategically being used in an environment it will serve as an architectural promenade and will have significant impacts on our lives.

METHOD AND RESULTS

By comparing several cases such as Seattle Public Library which implemented ramp as their main means of circulation and how people are using ramps or stairs in these cases and in-person reviews as well as monitoring visitors and occupants, I gathered enough reliable data. The results reflected the predicted theory and validate the use of the ramp as the main means of transportation.

Effects of flipped instruction in STEM education: a meta-analysis

Primary Author: Chioma Ezeh

Faculty Sponsor: Olusola Adesope

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Flipped instruction is an instructional model that requires students to learn materials prior to attending class and use classroom time to learn the material in-depth through active learning techniques. The rationale behind flipped instruction is that learning is enhanced when students are deeply engaged in the learning process and that spending classroom times to deepen such engagement is a virtuous approach. Considering the lack of an evidence-based meta-analysis of the different conditions under which flipped instruction is beneficial to STEM learning, this meta-analysis investigates the effectiveness of flipped instruction in teaching STEM courses.

METHOD

Flipped instruction was compared with traditional teaching methods. An extensive search for experimental studies that met the explicit selection criteria yielded 44 independent studies included in this meta-analysis. These studies were read and coded. Cohen’s d effect size was calculated for each study in order to obtain a standardized estimate of the difference in learning outcomes between students who learned in a flipped classroom and those who learned in the traditional classrooms.

RESULTS

Overall, the results showed that flipped instruction is effective for STEM education, but needs to be well designed in order to yield positive academic gains, as the effect was dependent on study designs, among other moderating variables. Larger positive learning effects were associated with studies that had more rigorous designs in terms of participant randomization, treatment duration, measurement of prior difference, test format and media of test presentation. These findings have implications for designing flipped classrooms, particularly for STEM subjects.

Tribal structures and their impact on terrorism and counterterrorism in Iraq

Primary Author: Mohammad Ghaedi

Faculty Sponsor: Martha Cottam

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

There is a gap in the literature of peace studies regarding the role of critical groups such as tribes in the Middle East and their contribution to peace/terror. Groups impact individuals’ behaviors; therefore, tribes, as critical groups, deserve attention in peace studies. This research, drawing upon theories from social psychology, attempts to explain the relationship between tribes and terrorism/counterterrorism in Iraq. These theories include obedience, conformity, social cohesion, and ostracism.

The research question is what the relationship between tribes and terrorism/counterterrorism in Iraq is. The main hypothesis is “tribe members participate in terrorist and counterterrorist activities in Iraq on their tribe’s demand”. This research has used participant-observation method collecting data from southwest Iran (a field identical to Iraq) to test the hypothesis. Also, in the coming months, in-depth interviews will be conducted with tribesmen in Iraq.

Findings of this research suggest that tribesmen have to follow their tribal leaders (sheiks) and participate in acts of violence if they order so (obedience). Tribesmen also have to change their behavior to conform with other members of their tribe; therefore, if others participate in an activity, everyone feels pressured to be engaged (theory of conformity). In addition, they must maintain tribe values like solidarity (theories of cohesiveness). Otherwise, they will face punishment such as ostracism.

These results are important because it brings an overlooked variable (tribes) to the literature. It also challenges prior research which focus on religion/ideology, individuals’ psychology, or economic variables as causes of terrorism. Furthermore, this research has implications for practitioners and policymakers who are dealing with the region and is important in focusing their attention on tribes and tribe leaders.

Oldest tattoo tool in Western North America from the Turkey Pen Site, Utah

Primary Author: Andrew Gillreath-Brown

Faculty Sponsor: Tim Kohler

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Tattoo traditions of Native North America are integral aspects of Indigenous cultural expression, which have been undervalued by Western scholars. Native American tattooing is documented historically throughout the southwestern United States. However, few prehistoric tattoo tools have been identified thus far. Therefore, the origins of tattooing in the region are unknown. We recently discovered a unique tattoo tool from the Turkey Pen site (ca. 500 BC-AD 500), Utah. This research contributes to identifying the earliest occurrences of tattooing across the world, which is important for understanding the origins and motivations behind this global human practice.

METHOD

There are no set procedures for studying this type of unique, perishable tool, which is constructed from a sumac stem, prickly pear cactus spines, and yucca leaf strips. Therefore, we present a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the Turkey Pen tattoo tool, including high resolution microscopy, using x-rays for detecting tattoo ink, and experimental tattooing. Further, we establish a procedure for how to study similar tattoo tools.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Through microscopy, we identified three different types of plants used in the construction of the tattoo tool. X-rays revealed that ink was embedded in the cactus spine tips. During experimental tattooing, we were able to produce similar characteristics to that of the Turkey Pen tool (e.g., indentations, smoothing, and rounded cactus tips). This unusual tool is the oldest tattooing artifact identified in western North America and provides evidence extending the antiquity of Native American tattooing in the southwestern United States back to the first century AD.

To test or not to test? Providing affordable diagnostic assays for the benefit of grapevine nurseries and growers

Primary Author: Kaitlin Hadaway

Faculty Sponsor: Naidu Rayapati

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Wine grape production in Washington State has been increasing over the years, as has the prevalence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV). Diagnostic assays aid in differentiating viral symptoms from others to ensure correct management strategies are utilized. However, many growers are unable to test grapevines due to the high costs levied by commercial diagnostic services. As virus testing is a crucial component to any management plan, a project was initiated to estimate costs associated with testing for GLRaV-3 and GRBV.

METHOD

To accurately estimate the costs associated with diagnostic testing of samples, variable costs (salaries, laboratory consumables, chemicals and reagents) and fixed costs (equipment costs and maintenance fees, depreciation) were gathered. List prices of these aspects identified from standard protocols for sample processing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain (RT-PCR) and PCR were collected and divided to obtain the cost per unit utilized within a protocol. In addition, commercial labs were contacted for their pricing to provide a comparison for growers.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

It was determined that for all laboratory methods utilized, testing was more cost-effective with an increase in samples tested. If 96 samples are tested at a given time, the cost for GLRaV-3 detection is between $5.39 and $6.64 per sample while the cost for GRBV detection is between $4.66 and $5.91 per sample. The estimated costs are significantly less than those prices quoted by commercial labs ($10-$25 per assay). Results indicate diagnostic testing can be affordable without compromising accuracy of the diagnoses.

Evolution of remnant of a merger of a black-hole and Neturion star using viscosity

Primary Author: Milad Haddadi

Faculty Sponsor: Matthew Duez

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Gamma-ray bursts are energetic explosions observed in distant galaxies, however, their origin is not well understood yet. Any theory should explain how such energy which the sun releases in 10 billion years can be released in a few seconds.

One of the candidates for this phenomenon is the merger of a Neutron star with a black hole. In our research, we simulate the remainder of the merger of a black hole and a Neutron star using Einstein general relativity theory, because we are dealing with strong gravity where Newtonian physics breaks down.

Strong magnetic field plays a crucial role by channeling the energy into electromagnetic radiation. However recent simulations have proved one must have a very high-resolution grid for evolving magnetic field which is computationally not accessible. We introduced a new method which models magnetic field effects by viscosity without the need for high resolution.

We applied our code to simple systems like a single neutron star and a disk of gas around black-hole. Our simulations showed consistency of angular velocity profile and heating rate of viscosity to theoretical values predicted for these simple systems.

In general, we developed a new general relativistic hydrodynamic viscous code and tested it by two methods. Employing this method will be helpful in the evolution of remnant of a merger of black-hole and neutron star as it adds crucial physics of magnetic fields without extraordinary demand for computation resources.

Effects of dual-subtitles on EFL listening comprehension and vocabulary learning

Primary Author: Tao Hao

Faculty Sponsor: Yuliya Ardashewa

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

This study investigated the effects of dual subtitles, English subtitles, Chinese subtitles, and no subtitles on the listening comprehension and vocabulary learning of EFL learners. Regardless of the growing prevalence of the use of subtitles, understanding the effects of dual subtitles is still in its infant stage. The theoretical framework was based on the cognitive load theory and the redundancy effect theory.

METHOD

A total of 229 college sophomore students were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (dual, English, Chinese, and no subtitles) for intermediate and advanced learners respectively. The participants viewed four TED talks videos in two weeks and were pretested and post-tested by 104 multiple-choice questions (36 questions for pre-test and 68 questions for post-test).

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

A one-way ANCOVA was conducted to determine if there were any statistically significant difference between different subtitle mode effects. The results demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the four subtitle modes for intermediate learners. However, the findings showed significant differences among the four subtitle modes for advanced learners. Specifically, the no subtitle and dual subtitle groups performed significantly better than the English subtitle group on vocabulary learning. Also, the Chinese subtitle group outperformed the no subtitle group significantly on listening comprehension. Taken together, the results indicated, for advanced English students, that the redundancy effect may exist in vocabulary learning and that adding dual subtitles did not impose high cognitive load. Accordingly, this study offered important implications for learning English through watching videos using different subtitle modes.

Cold induced, ripening-related, gene expression is regulated by vernalization associated genes in Pyrus communis

Primary Author: Seanna Hewitt

Faculty Sponsor: Amit Dhingra

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

European pears (Pyrus communis L.) are a nutritionally and economically important fruit in the U.S. and throughout the world. Unlike many fruits, pear genotypes require cold-temperature exposure to induce fruit ripening. While physiological and hormonal responses of pears to cold-temperature storage have been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not yet well understood.

METHODS

In order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that regulate ripening as a result of low temperature storage, we investigated the response of ‘D’Anjou’ and ‘Bartlett’ pear genotypes at four different physiological stages during the cold conditioning process. Following total RNAseq and transcriptome assembly, we conducted functional annotation and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of all expressed contigs using Blast2GO. We then conducted time course differential expression analysis using the maSigPro R package.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

We identified differentially expressed genes and associated ripening-related pathways of hormonal and environmental nature. In addition to validating expression patterns of known ripening-related genes, we also identified many genes associated with vernalization, a well-studied process whose initiation is also dependent on accumulation of chilling hours. These data provide insight into mechanisms of cold-induced transcriptional regulation of ripening in European pear, as well as a unique comparative analysis of two genotypes with different cold conditioning requirements. The knowledge gained from this research will ultimately advance the ability of pear growers to regulate ripening of their fruit. This translates to reduced waste, greater marketability of pear fruit, and a better eating experience for consumers.

Probing root architecture in spring wheat under drought

Primary Author: Kathleen Hickey

Faculty Sponsor: Andrei Smertenko

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Although wheat plays a pivotal role in global food security, drought devastates wheat production by inducing accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in leaves. Plants can avoid drought by mining water from deeper soil layers. Historically, breeding efforts have resulted in varieties with shallow roots as selection of deeper root systems remains underexploited due to technical difficulties accessing roots.

METHOD

Here we tested a novel strategy for assessing root architecture by quantifying ROS in leaves. Our rationale is that plants with better access to soil moisture through deeper root systems will produce less ROS under drought. Accumulation of ROS can be determined by measuring the abundance of peroxisomes. Peroxisome abundance in cells is known to increase in response to ROS production. We selected 7 spring wheat varieties Alpowa, AUS28451, Drysdale, Dharwar Dry, Hollis, Louise, and Onas. The watering was withheld at the beginning of tillering throughout maturity. Soil moisture values and in-situ roots images were taken weekly.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

We identified three root growth patterns: no response to drought (Drysdale, Dharwar Dry); reduction of growth under severe drought (Alpowa, AUS28451, Onas); and reduction during all stages of drought (Hollis, Louise). Reduction of root growth under drought correlated with greater peroxisome abundance in Hollis and Alpowa (P>0.0092; P>0.0252). Furthermore, peroxisome abundance correlated positively with grain yield under drought (0.7545) meaning Drysdale and Dharwar Dry sustain yield by increasing the root:shoot ratio, while Hollis and Alpowa rely on peroxisomes. Thus, peroxisome abundance under drought can be used as an indicator of root architecture.

PSE students pre and post test scores within a sex education workshop

Primary Author: Kathryn Hirschfelder

Faculty Sponsor: Don McMahon

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

There is a need for teaching sex education for students with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disabilities (IDD). Servais (2006) discussed that people with IDD are less informed about sexual health than the general public. The focus in these classes is mostly on sexual abuse and sexuality as opposed to preventative care.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of teaching sexual education curriculum for students with IDD in an inclusive Post-Secondary Education program. Quantitative data was collected on a pre-/post-teaching within a sex education semester-long workshop at a post-secondary education program within a large public university. Results show that three out of the four students with IDD increased their knowledge after being taught this curriculum in the first chapter and all four increase their knowledge after the second chapter. As the students continue in the course, the goal is to increase their knowledge of preventative care to that of the general public.

A real-time network-level traffic signal control methodology with partial vehicle information

Primary Author: S M A Bin Al Islam

Faculty Sponsor: Ali Hajbabaie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

This study presents a methodology for real-time traffic signal control in urban-street networks with a mix of connected and unconnected vehicles. The proposed distributed model predictive control (DMPC) estimates the state of the network by integrating connected vehicle (CV) and point detector data. This paper presents two algorithms to estimate traffic state in urban transportation networks with a mix of connected and unconnected vehicles. The first algorithm integrates CV and vehicle detection on loop detector data to estimate the trajectory of unconnected vehicles based on car following concepts. The second algorithm converts the temporal vehicle detection to a spatial vehicle distribution on a link. Both algorithms are integrated in a distributed and real-time traffic signal control methodology. The methodology utilizes either algorithm to estimate traffic state on all network links at a time, optimize the signal timing parameters over a prediction period constituting several time steps, implements the optimal decisions in the next time step, and continues this process until the end of the study period. We applied the methodology to a real-world case study network simulated in Vissim. The results show that both algorithms are effective under all CV market penetration rates in all demand pattern tested: at 0% CV penetration, the proposed methodology reduced travel time by 31% to 33% and average delay by 58% to 62% compared to the existing signal timing parameters and traffic demand. At 40% CV penetration, the proposed algorithms reduced travel time by 27% to 33% and average delay by 50% to 61% compared to the existing signal and demand pattern in the case study network. Similar trends were found for all other demand patterns tested in this study.

Women empowerment and development in Africa: Grassroots approach towards gender equality: a case study of Nigeria grassroots empowerment programs

Primary Author: Emmanuel Jaiyeola

Faculty Sponsor: Pam Bettis

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Women’s empowerment programs in Africa are mostly sponsored by international organizations and development agencies. However, the success of such programs has been thwarted by cultural barriers, as well as the contextual perceptions of what empowerment means to females of different ages, ethnicities, locations, and backgrounds in Africa. Besides, the western ideology of empowerment is often found in the design of the programs executed in Africa. This is done without the voices and choices of African women about the empowerment programs that will mostly be useful to them.

METHOD

Consequent upon the inadequacies of these programs to meet the need of the women, they are more oppressed and marginalized and this further entrenches gender inequality. Therefore, this research use case study approach to uncover the understanding and expectations of Nigerian rural women about empowerment that would yield the desired goal of gender equality target of the United Nations’ ultimate goal in 2030.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

This poster shows how grassroots empowerment programs that are indigenously conceived with the participation of the users and culturally delivered meet the social and economic need of Nigerian women that give them power to directly improve the economic and social situations of their families, communities, and the nation towards gender equality.

Bi-level Volt-VAR optimization to coordinate smart inverters with voltage control devices

Primary Author: Rahul Jha

Faculty Sponsor: Anamika Dubey

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) uses Volt-VAR optimization (VVO) methods to reduce customer power demand by controlling feeder’s voltage control devices. The objective of this work is to present a VVO approach that controls system’s legacy voltage control devices (voltage regulators and capacitor banks) and coordinates their operation with smart inverter control. An optimal power flow (OPF) formulation is proposed by developing linear and nonlinear power flow approximations for a three-phase unbalanced electric power distribution system.

METHOD

A bi-level VVO approach is proposed, where Level 1 optimizes the control of legacy devices and smart inverters using a linear approximate three-phase power flow. In Level 2, the control parameters for smart inverters are adjusted to obtain an optimal and feasible solution by solving the approximate nonlinear OPF model. Level 1 is modeled as a mixed integer linear program (MILP) while Level 2 as a nonlinear program with linear objective and quadratic constraints.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The proposed approach is validated using small, medium and large test feeder to verify the scalability. The results demonstrate the applicability of the framework in achieving the CVR objective. It is demonstrated that the proposed coordinated control approach helps us to reduce the feeder’s power demand by reducing the bus voltages; the proposed approach maintains an average feeder voltage which is recommended minimum voltage. The results demonstrate energy saving in the feeder using CVR.

Gender portrayals in children’s media

Primary Author: Soojung Kang

Faculty Sponsor: Stacey Hust

Primary College/Unit: Edward R. Murrow College of Communication

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Due to the popularization of online media streaming services (e.g., Netflix, Hulu), the current media industry targets babies and toddlers and their parents as part of a growing consumer market, as shown from Hulu’s streaming content for babies. Nevertheless, previous content analyses have not catalogued how gender is portrayed in these programs. Therefore, this study explored the gender portrayals of main characters based on a content analysis of programs targeted to Babies and Kids 2-4 streamed via Hulu.

METHOD

196 characters were coded from 96 episodes in the final data set. The coding protocol was composed of two layers, the program-specific codes and the character-specific codes. The program-specific codes included the basic profile of programs. The character-specific codes were designed for the main character’s demographic profile and characteristics. The coding protocols were developed based on the previous studies.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Adult characters were largely absent from the programming. Male characters appeared almost twice as often as female characters. Female characters were portrayed significantly differently from male characters in stereotypical ways which included portrayals as caregivers with a focus on their appearance, while male characters were portrayed as active and aggressive significantly more often than female characters. Overall, programs targeted to 2-4-year-olds included more masculine portrayals than the ones targeted to babies. The results suggest that even the youngest viewers are exposed to narrow and traditional gendered scripts, which is disconcerting given the significance media plays in gender socialization.

Perceived inclusivity of sex education and mental health among sexual minority students

Primary Author: Gregory Keiser

Faculty Sponsor: Paul Kwon

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Research has demonstrated more negative sexual and mental health outcomes in sexual minorities (SMs) compared to heterosexual groups. Qualitative research suggests sex education may be particularly salient to SMs and may contribute to health disparities, but little quantitative research has evaluated these suggestions. The present study sought to address this gap in the literature by developing a measure of perceived inclusivity of sex education and evaluating the relationships between sex education climate and health outcomes in sexual minority students.

METHOD

The Perceived Inclusivity of Sex Education Scale (PISES) was developed and administered to 263 SM students between ages 18 and 25 to assess associations between sex education climate and health outcomes including depression, anxiety, and suicidality, sexual risk-taking, and substance use behaviors. Greater inclusion was hypothesized to be associated with better health outcomes and fewer risk-taking behaviors and substance use.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

On average, participants reported perceiving sex education to be highly exclusive. Greater perceived inclusivity of sex education was associated with lower anxiety and depression during and following high school, lower suicidality during high school, and lower risk for developing a suicide plan following high school. Perceived inclusivity did not significantly relate to sexual risk-taking and substance use. These findings can help guide future directions for research regarding the clinical impacts of sex education among sexual minority populations. The findings also provide initial empirical support for calls to increase the inclusion of sexual minority orientations in sex education curricula and may inform future policy regarding sex education.

Effects of amylose content on the mechanical properties of starch-hydroxyapatite 3D printed bone scaffolds

Primary Author: Caitlin Koski

Faculty Sponsor: Susmita Bose

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Creating scaffolds that mimic the structure and functionalities of bone tissue remains a critical challenge in the biomedical field. These composites must maintain biomechanical function and integrity at the bone defect site until the tissue is fully regenerated. Although 3DP has provided multiple opportunities for the fabrication of varying types of bone scaffolds, the selection of a suitable polymer remains a formidable challenge. Developing 3DP technologies including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) have led to the advancement of new composite scaffold systems which have overcome many drawbacks of bulk ceramic structures. However, limitations still exist regarding the addition of naturally sourced polymeric materials in current 3DP technologies. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of amylose content on the mechanical and physical properties of starch-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for bone and tissue engineering applications. Starch-HA composite scaffolds utilizing corn, potato, and cassava sources of gelatinized starch were fabricated through the utilization of a self-designed and built SFF. It was hypothesized that botanical starches with higher amylose content at higher weight percentages would increase the mechanical strength of starch-HA scaffolds. Overall, compressive strengths of scaffolds were achieved up to 12.49 + 0.22 MPa through the implementation of 5.46 wt% corn starch with a total amylose content of 1.37%. This is based on a proposed reinforcement mechanism through interlocking hydroxyl-rich amylose with hydroxyapatite through hydrogen bonding.  XRD, FTIR, and FESEM were utilized to further characterize these scaffold structures, ultimately elucidating amylose as a biologically relevant reinforcement phase of resorbable bone scaffolds.

Transmission-distribution co-simulation: analytical methods for iterative coupling

Primary Author: Gayathri Krishnamoorthy

Faculty Sponsor: Anamika Dubey

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Most of the existing Distributed Energy Resources (DER) interconnection studies evaluate the integrational challenges of high DER penetrations either only at the distribution level or on a decoupled transmission and distribution (T&D) system. The potential impacts on the transmission grid are either ignored given low penetrations of DERs or are non-representative due to the decoupled T&D model. This work aims to mitigate the associated challenges by developing a T&D integrated framework for quasi-static power system co-simulation. The major focus is to develop improved methods with faster convergence for iterative coupling of T&D systems and to bring the co-simulation platform closer to the standalone unified models of T&D systems.

METHOD

The proposed framework is comprised of: three-sequence AC power flow for transmission system, three-phase AC power flow for distribution system, and an iterative coupling approach at the T&D interface. The T&D systems are solved separately and the boundary variables are iteratively updated for both subsystems until they converge. To obtain update rules for boundary variables, an analytical framework to represent the T&D co-simulation interface using a set of nonlinear equations is developed. It is then solved using first-order and second-convergent techniques based on Fixed-point iteration (FPI) and Newton’s method respectively.

RESULTS

The results show that the developed framework converges for varying levels of system loading and unbalance conditions. Newton’s method requires less time to converge as compared to FPI method. Improvements in the number of iterations and the time taken to converge are more pronounced for stressed system conditions.

Analyzing the relationship between days in milk & classification of subclinical hypocalcemia in U.S. dairy cows

Primary Author: Laura Krogman

Faculty Sponsor: John Wenz

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Subclinical hypocalcemia (SCHC) is an important disease affecting the profitability of the U.S. dairy industry. Routine monitoring of SCHC has traditionally been accomplished by sampling cows at one or two days post-calving, yet few studies have critically analyzed this approach.

METHOD

The objective of this study was to determine the temporal association between the timing of a cow being sampled at 1, 2, and 3 days in milk (DIM) and their classification as having SCHC. We hypothesized that the identification of a cow as having SCHC (serum Ca <8mg/dL) is dependent on the day they are sampled post-calving. A convenience sample of 125 fresh, multiparous Holstein cows from two dairies were enrolled.

RESULTS

Results from this study showed that the DIM when a cow is sampled does impact their classification as having SCHC and therefore can impact herd prevalence estimates. This was especially true for cows that were lactation 3 and greater; a decrease in SCHC prevalence was observed on day 3 compared to days 1 and 2 of sampling (p < 0.05). From these data, we suggest that routine SCHC monitoring programs measure serum calcium at 3 DIM, rather than at 1 or 2 DIM, to account for a cow’s ability to manage themselves through SCHC. These findings may help managers avoid declaring a problem with SCHC if it does

Re-evaluating increasing block pricing for residential water markets with inattentive consumers

Primary Author: Jukwan Lee

Faculty Sponsor: Jia Yan

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Complicated water pricing schedule makes it difficult for customers to know what price they are paying. Increasing Block Price (IBP) is one of such schedules and is the most popular price schedule in the residential utility market. The market efficacy requires an accurate response of customer, then why IBP is so widespread even though customers have limited understanding of actual schedule.

METHOD

This paper tries to explain this popularity of IBP by exploring the outcome of misperception in three players in residential water market: individual consumer, profit-maximizing water provider and municipal commision. For that, first, I recover the individual household’s perceived price. Second, estimate the individual demand and distinguish the actual and optimal usage using 2005 to 2010 monthly panel of 13,899 water customers of two communities in the Phoenix, AZ.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The result shows that 70% of the consumers misinterpret the price and use their own perceived price. This reduces consumer welfare, but contrary to the concerns of the literature, the loss of this bias was less than a dollar per month. Second, since about 40 percent of consumers underestimate the price and use more than optimum, this results in extra revenue for the monopolistic producer. Third, In the multiple periods, we can observe that the overall consumption trend declines according to the repeated price increase. These results make each player less likely to claim a reform of this pricing system but if we consider overall social welfare, IBP could not be a universal solution.

A longitudinal examination of interactions between autism symptom severity and parenting behaviors in predicting change in child behavior problems

Primary Author: Rebecca Lindsey

Faculty Sponsor: Tammy Barry

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have secondary behavior problems, with more severe ASD symptomatology relating to more severe behavior problems. Behavior problems are correlated with parenting behaviors; however, less research has investigated the relations among specific parenting behaviors and change in child behavior problems, particularly among children with ASD.

METHOD

This study examined the interactions among Time 1 ASD symptom severity and positive and negative parenting behaviors (analyzed separately) when predicting Time 2 child internalizing and externalizing behaviors (analyzed separately), when accounting for Time 1 child behavior and caregiver distress. The sample included 129 caregivers of a child with ASD (ages 4-10 years) who completed two online questionnaires one year apart, which included measures assessing ASD symptom severity, child behavior problems, parenting behaviors, and caregiver distress.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Across four moderated multiple regression analyses, Time 1 ASD symptom severity, positive parenting, and negative parenting predicted unique variance in Time 2 child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. All four examined interactions were significant: ASD symptom severity and positive parenting predicting externalizing behaviors, ASD symptom severity and positive parenting predicting internalizing behaviors, ASD symptom severity and negative parenting predicting externalizing behaviors, and ASD symptom severity and negative parenting predicting internalizing behaviors. Post-hoc plots suggested higher levels of positive parenting and lower levels of negative parenting may protect against later child behavior problems for children with less severe ASD symptoms but not for those with more severe ASD symptoms. Results have implications for interventions targeting parenting practices for children with ASD.

Social aversion in the built environment

Primary Author: Taylor Lynch

Faculty Sponsor: Matt Cohen

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Researchers including Jan Gehl, William Whyte, and Jane Jacobs typically study public spaces through occupant density and frequency of interactions. Thus, people are presumed to be attracted to other people, and the congregation of people is assumed to be almost always desirable. It is, therefore, common for designers to idealize the value of their public spaces under this assumption. I propose an argument that attraction to others implies a coexisting, yet opposite, possibility that some people make spatial decisions in resistance to the presence of others.

METHOD

To explore the social phenomenon of attraction versus resistance, this research focuses on gaining an experiential understanding of individual wayfinding thought processes related to proxemic comfort. This is done by recording multiple individuals’ movement through a space around other occupants, followed by their explanation of why they chose to direct their interactions the way they did.

RESULTS

Results conclude that there are cases where people lie on only one side of the spectrum of attraction versus aversion. Therefore, those who choose to use a public space while densely occupied may find just as much value in that space as those who prefer to use the space while occupied in smaller volumes. This conclusion provides evidence that if design researchers broaden their focus to include the less interactive demographic, they will understand that not all people prefer social interaction in public spaces.

Effectiveness of a surface-bonded smart piezo module system in the determination of Wave Modulus of Elasticity (WMoE) of concrete

Primary Author: Ayumi Manawadu

Faculty Sponsor: Pizhong Qiao

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Aging related structural safety issues have led to the need of a robust condition assessment technique for concrete structures. Existing in-situ techniques are expensive, time consuming and destructive. Ultrasonic wave-based condition assessment using piezoelectric sensors is a well-established nondestructive testing method to this end. Nevertheless, the need to embed these sensors inside existing structures limits its application. Surface-bonded sensor systems are a good alternative in this regard. However, the characteristic waves used in the two systems are distinct and it is necessary to understand the differences before applying this technique to sensing devices.

METHOD

A surface-bonded smart piezo module system with piezoelectric patches, utilizing surface waves (Rayleigh waves) is adopted to investigate the age-dependent Wave Modulus of Elasticity (WMoE) of concrete beams, in comparison to an embedded system utilizing Shear waves. A numerical investigation is performed to validate the experimental investigation. Time of Flight of propagating waves is the key parameter used to calculate the respective WMoE.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Both methods successfully determined the stiffness gain of plain concrete during the curing period. The WMoE determined from the surface bonded system is always higher compared to the embedded system but is negligible when the structure has fully cured. WMoE of concrete is always higher than the Static Modulus of Elasticity by approximately a maximum of 10%. The results demonstrate that the surface-bonded system is as accurate as, or even better than the embedded system in the determination of WMoE and potentially more effective in installation for existing structures.

Recovering valuable bioactive compounds from potato peels via Sequential Hydrothermal Extraction

Primary Author: Jose Martinez-Fernandez

Faculty Sponsor: Shulin Chen

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Potato peels are a major waste stream from the potato processing industry and a potential source of valuable functional and bioactive compounds. Recovering these compounds would valorize this agricultural byproduct. However, traditional extraction methods have several drawbacks: they are energy and chemical intensive and have low yields. Moreover, conventional methods require completely dry samples, necessitating pretreatment.  In contrast, Sequential Hydrothermal Extraction (SeqHTE) is a unique, environmentally friendly two-stage process ideal for processing wet biomass. This tunable extraction platform employs subcritical conditions of water to enhance mass transfer and break up solid materials into smaller, more soluble components, leading to higher selectivity and higher extraction yields.

This study evaluated performance of SeqHTE treating different potato peels in terms of process versatility, extraction yields, bioactive quality, and soluble nutrient recovery. Polyphenol recovery compared favorably with previous studies, and owing to the increased presence of bound and complex polyphenolics, the extracts exhibited significant antioxidant activities. Moreover, the SeqHTE process allowed the recovery of important quantities of potato glycoalkaloids, polysaccharides, and water-soluble nutrients. The results correlated well with previous studies. The fundamental data collected lays the groundwork for further development of the custom extraction platform, and emphasizes the suitability of the process for the recovery of structurally diverse and complex bioactive compounds from potato peels. Furthermore, this work provides a preliminary understanding of the process chemistry, valuable insight on the effect of cultivar-specific attributes, determining sources of potential issues and highlighting key topics for future research efforts.

Analysis of faulted wines using the electronic tongue and a sensory evaluation panel

Primary Author: Victoria Minette

Faculty Sponsor: Carolyn Ross

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Many wine faults are the result of the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Contamination by microorganisms including Brettanomyces spp., Pediococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp., may result in large financial losses to wineries. The objective was to use the electronic tongue (etongue) and a trained sensory evaluation panel to differentiate among different faulted wines, with the goal of allowing early detection and remediation of these faults.

METHOD

Faulted wines were produced through the inoculation of Syrah wine with one or a combination of common wine spoilage microorganisms. These strains included two strains of Brettanomyces, two strains of Pediococcus and two strains of Lactobacillus. The finished wines were analyzed using the e-tongue and a trained sensory evaluation panel (n=10) for aroma, flavor, taste and mouthfeel attributes. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed.

RESULTS

The trained sensory evaluation data distinguished among the wine faults across most attributes tested. From these sensory data, the Brettanomyces wines were described as having animal, and sharp properties, the Pediococcus wines as having round and fruity properties and the Lactobacillus wines as having sweet and tingly sensory properties. The etongue discriminated among the different faults, with discrimination indices between 82-86% for Brettanomyces and Pediococcus-contaminated wines. However, for wines contaminated with Lactobacillus spp., discrimination by the e-tongue was lower (57% DI), a result reflected by the sensory results. The results of this study demonstrate that the etongue is effective in monitoring wine quality, specifically microbial spoilage by several microorganisms, while still being representative of a trained sensory panel.

Elucidating the genetic makeup of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 for managing leafroll disease in Washington State vineyards

Primary Author: Arunabha Mitra

Faculty Sponsor: Naidu Rayapati

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is a significant problem to vineyard health and is known to malign vine growth and productivity. It is therefore a major constraint to the sustainability of the Washington wine industry. Six distinct viruses, named Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs), have been documented in vines affected with GLD. Among them, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is most prevalent worldwide. The predominance of GLRaV-3 could be due to its existence as several genetically distinct, but closely related variants aiding its spread via vectors. Currently, ten distinct variant groups of GLRaV-3 are known. Examining GLRaV-3 genetic diversity will offer valuable insight into GLD epidemiology.

METHOD

Grapevine samples presenting or suspected for GLD symptoms were collected from eleven red-fruited, eleven white-fruited, and two table grape cultivars in thirteen commercial Washington vineyards. Samples were screened for GLRaV-3 by a laboratory-based diagnostic test. From the GLRaV-3-positive samples, a virus-specific gene sequence was derived and subsequently compared with corresponding GLRaV-3 sequences reported from other grapevine-growing regions worldwide. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship between derived and reported virus sequences was examined.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Five genetically diverse GLRaV-3 variant groups were revealed that differed from one another by 10-20% at the genome sequence level. Also, isolates belonging to variant group I were more prevalent than isolates belonging to other groups. Practical implications of these results lie in facilitating the development of reliable diagnostic tools to detect all variants of the virus, preventing their spread by propagating virus-free grapevines, and implementing post-planting GLD management strategies.

Do we really need 100% tantalum to achieve accelerated bone healing?

Primary Author: Indranath Mitra

Faculty Sponsor: Amit Bandyopadhyay

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Tantalum (Ta) has been used as a coating material on titanium (Ti)-based orthopedic implants owing to its superior biological properties. Ta is a wear-prone soft metal with high density (~16.4 gm/cc) and high melting point (~3290K). This leads to processing difficulty during conventional manufacturing, limiting its use to only as a coating material. 3D printing technology may help us overcome this drawback by allowing us to fabricate Ti-Ta implants that can offer similar biological performance as pure Ta.

This study intends to understand the optimal amount of Ta that is needed for enhanced early stage bone tissue integration in vivo.

METHOD

In pursuit of addressing this research question, 3D printed Ti-Ta alloy implants were evaluated for their mechanical properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo biological response. We hypothesize that a combination of Ti-Ta alloy, with nanoscale surface modification, will offer similar to pure Ta early stage implant fixation in the host bone.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Increasing Ta content in Ti-Ta alloy, increased hardness by 35.2% when compared to Ti substrate. Ti-Ta alloys showed no cellular toxicity in vitro and enhanced early stage bone tissue integration at 5 weeks’ time in a rat distal femur model in vivo. Our results indicate 10% and 25% Ta alloying with Ti shows similar biological response. These concurrent observations and coherent results suggest excellent candidacy of 10% Ti-Ta alloys as a composition for metal implants to treat bone disorders.

Experimental demonstration of a unidirectional spin switch in a spintronic device

Primary Author: Maren Mossman

Faculty Sponsor: Peter Engels

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Spintronics plays a crucial role in the development of next-generation solid state devices used for data storage and integrated circuits. Unlike classical electronics, which only exploits electrical charge transport, spintronics also considers the flow of magnetism, or spin, in a system.  Here, we demonstrate a novel unidirectional spin switch that provides flexibility and coherent control with ultra-low power requirements.

METHOD

We demonstrate the mechanism of the spin switch by sweeping a repulsive optical barrier through an ultracold atomic gas.  In the presence of spin-orbit coupling induced by additional laser fields, the moving barrier effects spin flips that we directly monitor in our experiment. These results are supported by numerical simulation.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

This is the first known observed case of unidirectional magnetism switching in spintronic devices.  This experimental demonstration opens a new avenue for designing a modern class of low-power, spintronics devices.

Development and validation of an instrument concerning stresses resulting from the transition to parenthood: baby preparation-associated worry scale

Primary Author: Alyssa Neumann

Faculty Sponsor: Maria Gartstein

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Prenatal maternal stress increases adverse health outcomes for offspring, from premature birth and difficult temperament to cardiovascular risks in adulthood (Talge, Neal & Glover, 2007). Pregnancy-related anxiety predicts infant/child outcomes, even beyond the effects of general anxiety (Huizink et al., 2004). Several measures assess stressors during pregnancy including changes in physical appearance and giving birth (e.g., Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire; PRAQ; van den Bergh, 1990). However, no measure has addressed the uncertainty women face regarding the transition to parenthood. We developed a 16-item instrument to examine stress/worry surrounding women’s perceived preparedness for parenthood and caring for their baby and aimed to test its potential for use in prenatal healthcare settings.

METHOD

To develop the 16-item “Baby Preparation-Associated Worry Scale” (BPAWS), we conducted focus groups and consulted field experts on common challenges of new parenthood (e.g., financial resources, reduced time for chores/recreation). We predicted BPAWS would correlate positively with the PRAQ and maternal anxiety/depression. Expectant mothers were assessed in their third trimester and at postnatal follow-up (N=228). The PRAQ assessed pregnancy-related anxiety; pre-/postpartum depression and anxiety were assessed using established measures (Cox et al., 1987; Spielberger et al., 1989) Bivariate correlations and reliability analyses were performed to examine usability of the BPAWS.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The BPAWS emerged as reliable and showed significant positive correlations with the PRAQ and maternal pre-/postpartum anxiety and depression symptoms. BPAWS is expected to be clinically useful, particularly for new mothers in the U.S. given a sociocultural climate emphasizing independence and returning promptly to work after birth.

Drinking “green”: determinants of organic wine consumption in China

Primary Author: Zhe Ouyang

Faculty Sponsor: Christina Chi

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Understanding the purchase decision-making process for organic wine products is essential for achieving success in the emerging China wine market. This study examines how Chinese consumers’ social trust and health consciousness influence their affective responses of the imported organic wines and their subsequent purchase intentions towards the wines. It further explores the moderating role of product familiarity on consumers’ reliance on cognitions/emotions when making the purchase decision.

METHOD

A self-administrated survey was conducted via an online platform in China. 1,234 valid questionnaire was obtained. After conducting an exploratory factor analysis using training data (n=370), a series of partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis were conducted using the test data (n = 864). Particularly, test samples were divided into low- (n = 440) and high-familiarity group (n= 424) based on the reported familiarity ratings. A multi-group analysis was then conducted to test the equivalence of structural paths between two groups.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Findings clearly demonstrate that consumers’ social trust and health consciousness motive them to purchase organic wine both directly and indirectly through the prior impacts on positive emotions. Consumer’s product familiarity which increased from direct consuming experiences alters the associations between their cognitive/affective evaluations and purchase intentions. High-familiar consumers show a cognitive-focused evaluative orientation.

Findings offer companies guidelines to tailor the communication contents for different consumer segments. For novel consumers, the messages should focus on establishing favorable affective evaluations of the product. While for experienced consumers, the emphasized information should be the health benefits of consuming organic products.

Development of an oxygen sensitive model gel system for detection of defects in metal-oxide coated multilayer polymeric films

Primary Author: Ashutos Parhi

Faculty Sponsor: Shyam Sablani

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Metal-oxide coated multilayered polymeric pouches provide a suitable alternative to foil-based packaging for shelf-stable products with extended shelf-life. The barrier performance of these structures depends upon the integrity of the metal-oxide coating which tends to develop defects after thermal processing as well as due to mechanical stresses induced by improper handling. In this work, a methodology was developed to visually identify these defects using an oxygen sensitive model gel system and characterize the nature of defects using microscopic techniques.

METHOD

Four types of pouches with aluminum oxide, silicon oxide and hybrid coatings were filled with water and retort processed for 30 and 40 minutes at 121 °C. After processing, the pouches were emptied, dried and filled with a methylene blue containing gel that changes color in presence of oxygen and stored at 23 °C and 40°C for 6 and 3 months, respectively. Defects were identified by visualizing the localized color change from yellow to blue in the packaged gel.

RESULTS

Pouches with hybrid metal-oxide coating showed the least number of defects after thermal processing than other structures as evident by the color change in the packaged gel. Measurement of oxygen and water vapor transmission rates of the samples along with SEM and confocal microscopy confirmed these observations.  The sample crystallinity also increased significantly (P<0.05) after processing, leading to higher number of defects.  Overall, the method developed in this study will aid in design and development of high barrier metal-oxide coated polymeric films intended for packaging applications.

Uniform and employee behavior in the hospitality industry

Primary Author: Junsung Park

Faculty Sponsor: Jenny Kim

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Category: Business, Communication, & Political Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Uniform wearing is common in the service industry; a majority of hospitality corporations including hotels, airlines, and casinos require employees to wear uniforms because it is believed that uniform is prone to enhance a sense of community and fellowship of their employees. However, there has been little research of uniform impacts on employee behavior in the hospitality industry. As such, this present study explores how employee uniform in the industry influences employee behavior through organizational identification.

METHOD

We collected data from hotels in South Korea and the total number of the participants was 280. We employed M-Plus 8 (Muthén & Muthén, 2017) for data analysis. We tested our hypotheses in two steps. First, using ordinary least squares regression approach, we tested for hypotheses 1, 2, and 3. Second, we utilized Hayes’s (2013) PROCESS macro to test our mediation hypotheses.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Our findings manifest uniform appearance and uniform character influence organizational identification, which is positively associated with deep acting and is negatively associated with surface acting. In addition, our findings manifest that all the uniform features of appearance, character, and comfort are related positively to deep acting and that uniform character and comfort are related negatively to surface acting. Organizational identification mediates the relationships between uniform and deep and surface acting, except the relationships between uniform comfort and deep and surface acting. This study contributes to the hospitality research literature in that it sheds light on the effects of uniform on employee acting strategies in the hospitality industry.

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius environmental surveillance in private small animal primary care hospitals: a cross-sectional multi-clinic study

Primary Author: Andrea Perkins

Faculty Sponsor: Margaret Davis

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a companion animal pathogen that is resistant to all β-lactam antimicrobials and is associated with increasing resistance to other clinically important antimicrobial classes. It is an opportunistic canine commensal associated with recurrent and/or difficult to treat infections at various body locations. Environmental contamination is a key concern surrounding exposure and transmission of MRSP.

METHOD

We aimed to determine whether or not MRSP more frequently contaminates hand contact surfaces than animal contact surfaces within private small animal primary care veterinary practices. Environmental samples (n=374) were collected from 11 hospitals, half from hand contact surfaces, half from animal contact surfaces. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were also carried out on all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus isolates. A questionnaire covering infection control topics was administered at each hospital.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Animal contact surfaces were reportedly cleaned and disinfected more frequently than hand contact surfaces, however, hand antisepsis was reportedly more frequent after touching animal contact versus hand contact surfaces. Most hospitals had at least one MRSP strain unique to it. Most isolates were multi-drug resistant (72%). These findings suggest that humans play an important role in transmission and persistence of MRSP in small animal primary care hospitals and that hand hygiene and/or cleaning and disinfection could be improved. This information is useful for development of targeted veterinary infection control interventions which may lead to reductions in costs, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality, and may also help slow the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

Telenovelas, collard greens, and sweat lodges: Multicultural students’ experiences with health and culturally-based protective strategies at WSU

Primary Author: Brianne Posey

Faculty Sponsor: Patricia Maarhuis

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Intervention Model explains that students from multicultural backgrounds may be at risk for different types of health-related experiences than those who are not multicultural. As a response, the Health Promotion Multicultural Student Services Liaison Graduate Assistantship was developed to advance the health of underserved students at WSU Multicultural Services and United Greek organizations. Current outreach efforts consist of health psychoeducation, motivational interviewing, and culturally-focused content. This empirical poster reports on 2018 -2019 program evaluation findings. In the evaluation survey students were asked to detail which culturally specific behaviors they engage in that assist them in refraining from moderate to high risk behavior. Through qualitative thematic analysis, patterns emerged which include a variety of culturally specific food, dance, art, and religious protective practices. In addition, quantitative Chi Square analysis indicated that a moderately strong association exists between students’ perceptions that the content of the outreach was beneficial for their WSU social experiences and their willingness to engage in harm reductive strategies post outreach. Evaluation results indicate that culturally-based protective strategies may be more influential in stress management, healthy eating and sleep practices, motivation, and refraining from high risk drug related behaviors and sexual practices, than non-culturally based protective strategies. Furthermore, findings suggest that this intervention, which includes culturally-focused protective strategies and psychoeducation, has positive implications for underserved communities. We conclude that it is essential that WSU provide culturally relevant services and resources to accommodate our diverse student population.

Probabilistic quantification of power distribution system operational resilience

Primary Author: Shiva Poudel

Faculty Sponsor: Anamika Dubey

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

High-impact, low-probability (HILP) events resulting from extreme weather conditions have a significant impact on the aging power distribution infrastructures and it is of growing concern to minimize the impacts of such catastrophic events on critical infrastructures. This calls for a quantitative assessment of distribution system resilience that can not only predict the impacts of future events but also be used to evaluate different planning measures taken to minimize the impacts of extreme events.

METHOD

A probabilistic metric to quantify the operational resilience of the distribution grid is proposed. The metric is based on Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) measure where resilience is defined as the conditional expectation of a loss of energy in Megawatt-hour (MWh) for events beyond a prespecified risk threshold. A simulation-based framework to evaluate the proposed metric for resilience under different weather scenarios is presented.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The worst outcomes of any extreme event occurring with low probability are effectively captured by this metric. Effects of smart measures and reinforcement measures on resilience enhancement can also be quantified using the proposed resilience metric; making it suitable for comparing different resilience enhancement strategies and assist with the cost-benefit and planning analysis for resilience-driven investments.

Creating a Digital Memory Notebook application for individuals with mild cognitive impairment to support everyday functioning

Primary Author: Nisha Raghunath

Faculty Sponsor: Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Memory impairment can necessitate use of external memory aids to preserve functional independence. Because external aids can be difficult to learn and remember to use, technology may improve the efficacy of current rehabilitation strategies. We hypothesized that usability ratings and satisfaction with our Digital Memory Notebook (DMN) application would increase with each iteration.

METHOD

Twenty participants (aged 54+) with varying levels of cognitive ability were recruited for 4 iterations of usability testing (5 participants per iteration). Each participant completed a series of tasks using the DMN, followed by questionnaires that assessed satisfaction (i.e., the Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) and usability ratings (i.e., the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire) for the DMN.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Between Iterations 2 and 5, participants demonstrated marked reductions in time required to complete several types of tasks (e.g., add event) using the DMN. Participants in Iteration 5 rated all subscales of both the usability and satisfaction questionnaires very highly. Faster task completion times were correlated with more favourable system ratings. However, neither task performance times nor system ratings were correlated with cognitive abilities, scheduling tool use or comfort with technology. Both the questionnaire and performance-based data indicate the final iteration of the DMN was easy to use. Furthermore, the app was user-friendly despite individual differences in cognitive ability, familiarity with scheduling tools and comfort with technology. Future work will demonstrate whether the DMN will support everyday retrospective and prospective memory lapses and increase the functional independence and quality of life for persons with cognitive impairment.

Developing sustainable communities: Revitalizing the historic Colfax train depot site

Primary Author: Karan Raval

Faculty Sponsor: Jaime Rice

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

A sustainable community can be described as a community which has sufficient resources to survive on its own. In today’s era when we talk about sustainable communities, the first impression that comes to our mind is of the tangible environmental aspects like green design, resources, waste management, and carbon footprints. Intangible aspects like social interaction, and outreach which have a profound impact on economies are generally overlooked.  This project seeks to emphasize designing with an emphasis on these intangible aspects to improve the community.

The City of Colfax approached the Rural Communities Design Initiative (RCDI) at the School of Design and Construction (SDC) at WSU seeking design solutions to the use of the historic Colfax train depot site that could help the community to become a tourist destination, provide a platform for gathering and interacting for the community, and boost its economy. A multi-purpose and complex program for the Colfax depot site was developed through a series of community workshops with the officials and citizens of Colfax in collaboration with the RCDI and senior landscape architecture students in the SDC. The resulting design consists of a highway rest area, visitor center, farmer’s market, train car park, children’s play area, multipurpose pavilion and a public art installation. The proposal also focuses on using the existing site features and resources such as the rail tracks, existing buildings and vegetation, in an effort to cause minimal impact on the existing site conditions.

Validation and optimization of an ion selective electrode based biosensor for sepsis causing bacteria

Primary Author: Olivia Reynolds

Faculty Sponsor: Bernard Van Wie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The development of biosensors used to detect proteins or cells indicative of disease is a growing area of research. Rapidly responding sensors are particularly useful for conditions such as septic infections because patient survival depends on the timeliness of treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a novel biosensor to detect sepsis-causing bacteria based on the transport of charged chemical species called ions across selectively permeable membranes. When bacteria are captured on the membrane surface, ion transport is blocked, resulting in a rapid change in voltage which can be easily measured with a computer.

METHOD

This work focused on proof-of-concept and sensor optimization. The sensor membrane was covered with an inert material or protein coated beads. It was hypothesized that the sensor voltage would decrease upon coverage. A fractional factorial optimization study was also completed to improve the sensor performance. Sensor components including the ion concentration and amount of ion carrier molecules which transport ions across the membrane were varied.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Coverage of above 50% of the sensor membrane with an inert material resulted in significant voltage changes. However, when protein coated beads were captured on the membrane surface, no voltage change occurred. The optimization study showed that the maximum response occurred when the concentrations of ion carrier molecules were kept high. In conclusion, though the sensor does not currently respond ideally to proteins or cells, the proof-of-concept and optimization studies detailed herein provide a strong path forward for further development of an effective, inexpensive sensor.

Opting in/out: Using pseudonyms and digital spaces in peer review

Primary Author: Landon Roper

Faculty Sponsor: Kimberly Christen

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Digital technologies and social networking mediate an increasing number of social environments, including many in education. “The classroom” as a learning space has shifted due to pervasive learning management software, hybrid online/offline courses, and ubiquitous technological tools. Building on recent scholarship on digital spaces in education (Jensen 2016; Payne 2005), my project explores the impacts of blending spaces (face-to-face and digital) and diverse identities in traditional, face-to-face English 101 courses. Specifically, students analyzed issues regarding social justice in face-to-face discussions in class while exploring the same issues after class pseudonymously in a shared digital space. My research enriches the scholarship on peer review and other group-related learning practices while adding nuance to research of online behaviors involving anonymity/pseudonymity.

METHOD

I gathered data for four weeks from two sections of English 101 through observation and a subsequent survey. I observed discussions in class and online, then closely reviewed student feedback about their experience and analyzed the data to determine the impact of anonymity on collaborative learning processes.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

My research showed that students participated more often and more honestly when given pseudonyms in the digital discussion space. Students’ survey feedback also suggests several unexpected benefits of blending the digital and face-to-face spaces of the classroom and the use of pseudonymity. Overall, these results provide evidence for a new approach to peer review and class discussion while posing interesting questions regarding online discourse, social justice, and how space and technology mediate interaction.

Magnetic field-assisted stereolithography of composite materials

Primary Author: Shahriar Safaee

Faculty Sponsor: Roland Chen

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a group of manufacturing processes which fabricates parts by adding the material in layer-by-layer manner. Due to its unique properties, AM is suitable for producing complex and low-quantity multi-material parts in a single process, which allows embedding functional components inside customized products. Using multiple or functionally graded materials in AM can broaden the design space in different areas, enabling easier access to functional structures for applications such as sensors, wearable electronics, and biomedical scaffolds and implants. Stereolithography (SLA) is an AM process which fabricates solid parts by photopolymerizing a liquid resin. Due to the flowability of the build material in SLA, controlling the local properties of the final product remains challenging.

METHOD

In this work, we address this challenge by using magnetic field to control the distribution of ferromagnetic particles inside the resin. Different patterns and strengths of magnetic field, generated by permanent magnets, are used to control the gradient distribution of particles in a resin loaded with ferromagnetic particles.  Several parts are printed and characterized by evaluating the concentration of particles in different regions.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Having the proposed process verified, it’s proved that by changing the effective field in the resin vat, concentration and profile of the particles can be locally controlled. Results show that field assisted digital-light-processing SLA can be used to fabricate functionally graded materials with embedded magnetic particles. The proposed process can be used in AM of field-responsive smart polymeric structures, and also considered as a step toward single-step multi-material SLA.

A comprehensive evaluation of moving sprinkler irrigation systems (MESA and LESA) under dynamic variations of weather conditions

Primary Author: Abid Sarwar

Faculty Sponsor: Troy Peters

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The increasing water demands for agriculture and other sectors is building pressure for improved water management on farm as well as global scales. 28.5 million acres of farmland in the United States is irrigated with center pivots or linear moves (NASS, 2013).The specific objective of the study was to evaluate Mid Elevation Spray Application (MESA) and Low Elevation Spray Application (LESA) water application efficiency (WAE) under dynamic weather conditions.

METHOD

A field study was conducted for evaluating MESA and LESA for three consecutive years (2015-2017) using standard catch cans, rain gauges, and lysimeters. Mixed modeling data analysis technique was used to develop empirical models to explain the variability in water application efficiency.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Results revealed that 21 % more water was reaching the ground with LESA sprinklers than with MESA. Lysimeter data gave similar results showing an average of 16 % efficiency difference between MESA and LESA. WAE differences between MESA and LESA increased up to July when the weather was hotter and more arid and then started decreasing up to the end of September. The highest difference in average WAE was observed in July (hottest month of the study duration). Results indicated that the WAE remains relatively constant for LESA in changing weather conditions. Modeling technique revealed that WS and VPD are significant predictors (Pvalue<0.05) of WAE for MESA, while only VPD was significant for LESA. The proposed models could be used to adjust center pivot travel speed settings to compensate for WAE under changing weather conditions.

Circadian rhythms in the brainstem

Primary Author: Forrest Jay Shaffer

Faculty Sponsor: James Peters

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Circadian rhythms generated in the brain synchronize physiological and behavioral responses to environmental light / dark cycles, including the maintenance of autonomic tone and key reflex pathways. The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master brain clock and achieves rhythmicity through endocrine and neural control of the autonomic nervous system. While many studies have focused on understanding rhythm generation in the SCN, much less is known about extra-SCN clock mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of the brainstem as a key candidate for the extra-SCN rhythmic control of the autonomic nervous system. The NTS receives direct visceral inputs through the vagus nerve and is directly responsive to circulating factors and hormones; positioning it as a key integrator of circadian rhythms and visceral status. To begin, we investigated the basic components of the molecular circadian clock using quantitative PCR and in vitro luciferase activity as reporters of clock gene expression. From these approaches we determined the NTS expresses a robust molecular clock mechanism that can persist for many days independent of extrinsic coordination from the light / dark cycle or SCN. We extended these results using patch-clamp electrophysiology and demonstrated the additional presence of rhythmic glutamatergic neurotransmission onto NTS neurons. Together these observations suggest the NTS possesses intrinsic clock mechanism that may contribute to circuit activity and autonomic control throughout the day.

Solid set canopy delivery system: an efficient way to deliver agrochemicals in orchards and vineyards

Primary Author: Rajeev Sinha

Faculty Sponsor: Lav Khot

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

A solid set canopy delivery system (SSCDS) has recently been explored as an efficient way of chemical application in tree-fruit orchards. It offers advantages such as reduced drift and human exposure to chemicals compared to conventional axial–fan airblast sprayers. For such a system, emitters and their placements within the crop canopy are among key parameters to achieve efficient spray performance. Moreover, engineering challenges like the variation in hydraulic pressure and spray volume over a larger row are critical to commercial adoption. Therefore, different emitters and their mounting configurations were evaluated for spray performance in apple orchards and vineyards. Mylar cards and water sensitive papers were used as samplers to quantify spray deposition (using fluorometry) and coverage (using image processing), respectively. Moreover, a pneumatic spray delivery (PSD) based SSCDS was developed to keep the spray volume constant over a larger row length. The PSD system was compared with the conventional system for spray performance in an apple orchard. The results revealed that optimum spray performance in apple and vine canopies were achieved using finer spray droplets and placing emitters in a way to spray both upper and underside of the canopies. Significantly reduced ground and aerial drift were observed in SSCDS based spraying in vineyards compared to an airblast sprayer. Numerically higher spray deposition and coverage were observed using PSD based SSCDS compared to the conventional SSCDS. The outcomes of this study highlight SSCDS as an efficient and sustainable method for spray application in orchards and vineyards.

Leiomodin and Tropomyosin, binding to the pointed end of the thin filament

Primary Author: Garry Smith

Faculty Sponsor: Alla Kostyukova

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Somatic assembly of the sarcomere, the basic contractile unit of muscle, remains incompletely understood despite extensive study. Leiomodin (Lmod), a recently discovered homolog of a well-characterized muscle protein, Tropomodulin (Tmod), has been implicated in regulating the length of sarcomere thin filaments, polymers of actin and actin-binding proteins. Proper thin filaments are essential to muscle contraction, and mutations in Lmod have been linked to myopathies. In cells, both Lmod and Tmod localize to the slow-growing pointed end of the thin filament, and the two have opposite effects; Tmod halts thin filament growth while Lmod promotes it.

METHODS

We propose that Tmod and Lmod, dependent on tropomyosin, an actin-binding protein, compete for binding to the pointed end of the thin filament, thereby regulating its length through their inverse functions. Since there exists no definite structure of the Lmod/tropomyosin complex, this mechanism has been debated. Thus, we aim to establish the structure and to determine whether Lmod binds to the pointed end of the thin filament. Through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations (MDS), we have studied the complex formed by fragments of Lmod and tropomyosin, each fragment containing the other’s binding site.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

After determining conformation constraints on both fragments using NMR spectroscopy, we used those constraints to refine the complex with MDS. We have established the structure, placing Lmod at the pointed end of the thin filament. This provides convincing evidence for the proposed mechanism of thin filament length regulation.

Oxidative stability of natural color pigments and vitamins in thermally pasteurized products

Primary Author: Chandrashekhar Sonar

Faculty Sponsor: Shyam Sablani

Primary College/Unit Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Packaging oxygen transmission rate (OTR) can affect the nutritive and organoleptic quality as well as safety of pasteurized food products. Vitamins and natural color pigments (anthocyanins, betalains and carotenoids) are very important for human health and body functions. However, these nutrients are sensitive to processing and storage conditions. Our work focuses on a better understanding of oxygen sensitivity of selected color pigments and vitamin C in thermally pasteurized products at refrigeration temperatures. We selected three types of packaging films with varied OTRs (1.0 – 81 cm3.m-2.day-1), and vegetable purees (carrot, red cabbage, beet, peas) as a source of different color pigments. Purees were packed, pasteurized, stored at 4–13ºC for 3 months and analysed for quality parameters including pigment content, vitamins and color. High barrier film retained whereas low barrier film contributed to higher processing and storage losses of all parameters tested. β-carotene demonstrated good stability irrespective of OTR, although significant differences (P<0.05) were found among the films. Anthocyanins were very stable irrespective of film type with no significant differences (P>0.05) among three films. Betalains had the highest sensitivity to film OTR with total losses varying from 4–49%. Chlorophylls did not show significantly different sensitivity (P>0.05) towards film OTRs, but continuous degradation was observed with losses between 33–34%. The ascorbic acid retention varied from 0–89% depending upon the type of packaging. This study can guide food industry in the selection and/or design of suitable packaging material for better nutrient retention.

‘In certain western areas of the United States’: bestiality, sexuality, and animals in the American West, 1880-1980

Primary Author: Brian Stack

Faculty Sponsor: Peter Boag

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

This is a legal, cultural, and intellectual history of bestiality, or sex with animals, in the American West from 1880 to 1980. This research combines two oft-disconnected historical subfields—sexuality and animal welfare—by looking at bestiality with attention to ideas about animal abuse, not just the humans who do it. This research explains why several states legalized bestiality, including into the present, and what goes into criminalizing the act.

METHODS

I demonstrate the European influences on American medical discourses regarding bestiality by examining medical texts that discussed bestiality’s relationship to sexuality, homosexuality, and sexual deviances. I examine the many, changing sodomy laws in the American West which criminalized bestiality, in part or in whole, and whose repeal led to its legality. I analyze the activities of animal welfare organizations to explain why bestiality fell outside their purview until the 1970s. Lastly, a critical reading of cultural documents about bestiality—newspaper articles, pornography, and jokes—shows the vast extent to which bestiality was promoted or consumed by the American public.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

My research reveals that ideas about animals were significant to the history of sexuality and bestiality. I have shown why animal welfare legislation failed to protect animals from sexual abuse and the failures of sexual laws attempting to criminalize bestiality. Lastly, I raise questions about what the legality of this kind of animal abuse reveals about other instances where we believe animals are afforded adequate protections but in fact fail to do so.

Identifying a synthetic wheat line with an optimal protein profile in varying environments

Primary Author: Nikayla Strauss

Faculty Sponsor: Dr. Kimberly Garland-Campbell

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Winter wheat is known for having high seed protein content, which is important to farmers because of the >12% protein premium they receive. Ideally, winter wheat varieties would have high yields, high protein content, and desirable protein quality. In this study, a group of related synthetic wheat lines call the DNAM population was evaluated for desirable protein traits that could be under genetic control.

METHOD

The DNAM population was grown in a drought study in three different locations, one dryland field in Pullman, WA and two fields (irrigated and non-irrigated) in Ft. Collins, CO. Samples of grain from each plot were analyzed for protein content, grain moisture, and protein quality. Grain protein content was then compared with plot yield and protein quality to evaluate the complete protein profiles of each line, which includes total protein, grain protein deviation, protein quality, and percent protein per unit yield. Protein traits were also compared across environments to determine if any lines displayed stability in their performance under drought stress.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Overall, multiple lines were identified that had over 12% protein, desirable protein profiles and displayed stability in protein quality and percent protein per unit yield, indicating some level of genetic control for these traits. Knowledge of the protein profiles and stability of performance will aid future breeding efforts and increase understanding of genetic influences on grain protein. Lines that showed stability of performance are valuable for use in creating varieties that will reliably provide farmers with premium prices for their grain.

Coordinated speed optimization and traffic light control in connected transportation networks

Primary Author: Mehrdad Tajalli

Faculty Sponsor: Ali Hajbabaie

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

The connected vehicle technology improves the traffic control methods by collecting real-time vehicle information and make online decisions. Traffic signals play an important role in controlling traffic in urban street networks. Advisory speed systems can adjust vehicle speeds and consequently their arrival time to signalized intersections to reduce the number of stops. This study aims at showing the effectiveness of coordinated signal timing and speed optimization to further improve the traffic operations.

METHOD

Assuming all vehicles are equipped with onboard units, the signal controllers collect vehicle data through vehicle to infrastructure communications and find optimal signal timing parameters and advisory speeds to maximize network throughput while minimizing speed variations. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer non-linear program. A distributed optimization scheme is developed to reduce the computational complexity of the proposed program, and effective coordination between sub-network ensures near-optimality of the solutions.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

The case study results show that the proposed algorithm works in real-time and large networks and provide near optimal solution with a maximum optimality gap of 5.4%. The proposed algorithm is implemented in Vissim and results show that coordinated signal timing and speed optimization improved network performance in comparison with independent signal timing optimization and independent speed optimization. The coordinated approach reduced the travel time, average delay, average number of stops, and average delay at stops by 1.9%, 5.3%, 28.5%, and 5.4%, respectively compared to signal timing optimization. Moreover, the network throughput and average speed increased by 1.7% and 3.4%, respectively.

Insect antiviral immunity utilizes insulin and MAPK signaling that is independent of FOXO-mediated function

Primary Author: Chasity Trammell

Faculty Sponsor: Alan Goodman

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Flaviviruses are a prevalent health concern across the globe due to geographical expansion of insect vectors like the mosquito. Its role in the spread of West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and dengue virus (DENV) has made understanding the mosquito’s ability to regulate these viral infections a major focus of recent studies. Previous studies have identified JAK/STAT and FOXO-induced RNA interference (RNAi) pathways as major antiviral mediators. Here, we sought to identify other homeostatic-regulatory pathways that are involved in flaviviral infection. Through the use of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), we identified components of insulin and ERK signaling that contribute to insect immunity against flaviviral infection. We validated these findings by showing a reduction in flavivirus titer and activation of ERK signaling in mosquito cells when pretreated with bovine insulin. Additionally, insulin treatment inhibited FOXO transcriptional targets, such as RNAi machinery. We also show that when ERK signaling is inhibited, the reduction in viral titer through insulin treatment is lost. In order to identify the immunological significance of insulin-mediated immunity, we performed functional genomics analysis to identify how insulin affects transcriptional profiles of Drosophila melanogaster during infection. We show that while infection results in the downregulation of transcripts responsible for cellular metabolism and structural integrity, insulin treatment results in the upregulation of signaling pathways that are involved in host immunity and homeostatic regulation, such as JAK/STAT and MAPK. These findings provide insight into targets for disease intervention and possible therapeutics to combat disease during infection in humans.

Connecting people to community and nature through ecological sense of place: a case study of the Missouri Flat Creek restoration

Primary Author: Kayla Wakulich

Faculty Sponsor: Allyson Beall-King

Primary College/Unit: Other

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Busy schedules, global mobility, and greater barriers between humans and the environment, are increasing the disconnect between people and their biophysical environment. This disconnection is resulting in a not only a lack of connection between humans and the ecological community, but arguably creates a disconnection in the social community itself. Most urban areas have some type of stream system that offers the opportunity for people to encounter nature and better understand the local environment.

METHODS

The framework of Purpose, Observation, and Shared Vision or POV (Senge, 2006) was used to maximize the impact on student perceptions that urban stream systems are places to enjoy nature and to more broadly impact their ecological sense of place. This brings forth questions. Does providing opportunity for people to explore and interact with nature in urbanized stream systems actually help people develop an ecologically informed sense of place? How might the impact of these interactions be evaluated?

RESULTS/ IMPLICATIONS

Participants in a stream restoration project in Pullman, Washington were provided pre and post restoration intervention surveys. Statistical analysis of survey changes in perception by individuals indicate that being involved in the restoration improved ecological sense of place, and realization of nature in an urban setting. Open ended questions and reflection exercises further support the outcome, were analyzed using NVivo 11.4.1. This work provides evidence that utilizing a bioregional perspective when involving community members in an urban stream restoration project helps participants develop an ecological sense of place.

The effect of financial payout policies on marketing performance

Primary Author: Yuan Wen

Faculty Sponsor: BabuJohn Mariadoss

Primary College/Unit: Carson College of Business

Category: Business, Communication, & Politial Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

Over the last two decades, the practice of buying back own shares traded on capital markets (stock repurchase) and issuing stock dividends have become the most important financial payout instruments for U.S. firms. S&P 500 companies rewarded shareholders with $384 billion worth of buybacks during the first half of 2018 (CNN 2018). Although research in finance and management have widely addressed the phenomenon of financial payout policies, the effects of payout strategies such as stock repurchases on marketing decision making have not yet been studied. To fill the void in the current literature, we address the following questions: 1) Do firms’ financial payout policies affect their marketing strategy? 2) How do different financial payout policies affect marketing decision making? We study this using a sample comprising 216,302 observations from COMPUSTAT, using generalized structural equation modeling. Our research makes the following contributions: our study introduces, operationalizes, and empirically tests the concept of two financial payout policies: stock repurchase and dividend. We explore their influence on marketing strategy in the marketing literature: Theoretically, we investigate that financial decision making power shift, but not cash flow is the main reason for managers to act myopically at the expense of long-term firm value and subsequently myopic marketing performance. Practically, we found that stock repurchase is negatively associated with an integrative process of applying marketing knowledge, skills and resources to business through its effect on marketing myopic behavior. However, dividend does not have the effect.

Circumventing colistin resistance by combining colistin and antimicrobial peptides to kill colistin-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacteria

Primary Author: Kaitlin Witherell

Faculty Sponsor: Douglas Call

Primary College/Unit: College of Veterinary Medicine

Category: Medical & Life Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Colistin is a “last-line” antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria, but colistin resistance (mcr-1 and others) have emerged. Colistin normally binds lipid A and then diffuses into the periplasmic space where it then creates pores in the inner membrane. MCR is a phosphatidylethanolamine transferase that modifies lipid A, causing decreased affinity for colistin.

METHOD

We hypothesized that pore-forming antimicrobial peptides produce sufficient membrane damage to allow colistin into the periplasm independent of MCR-dependent resistance. We tested two peptides (“A” and “B”) with and without colistin, against colistin- and multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives. Cultures were incubated 18 hours after combining bacteria with serially diluted colistin with or without a fixed peptide concentration. We also measured red blood cell hemolysis after exposure to colistin and peptides for 1 hour.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

When combined with either peptide, minimum inhibitory concentrations of colistin decreased >2-fold for 82% of all isolates (n=17, 4- to 64-fold reduction), and 75% of colistin-resistant isolates (n=8, 4- to 64-fold reduction). Findings are consistent with outer membrane damage providing an alternative mechanism for colistin to enter the bacterial periplasm. Ten-percent hemolysis was evident at ~100 and 512 μg/ml for A and colistin, respectively; no hemolysis was detected with up to 500 μg/ml of B or for colistin combined with A or B at minimum inhibitory concentrations (0.04, 3.5, and 50 μg/ml, respectively). Adding antimicrobial peptides to colistin is a promising strategy for bypassing MCR-mediated colistin resistance and improving susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria.

Emotional designs in multimedia learning: a meta-analysis

Primary Author: Rachel Wong

Faculty Sponsor: Olusola Adesope

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Emotions can be both a facilitator and inhibitor of learning. Emotional design features, such as colors and shapes, have been embedded in multimedia learning environments to manipulate learners’ affect and learning outcomes. Although there is some research evidence showing that emotional designs are beneficial for promoting learning and affective outcomes, studies have also shown that emotional designs can be deleterious. To reconcile the mixed findings, this meta-analysis investigates the effects of learning from emotional designs.

METHOD

This meta-analysis aims to answer the following research questions: (1) What are the effects of emotional designs compared to neutral designs; and (2) How are emotional design effects moderated by presentation features, contextual features, and methodological features of the research? A thorough and systematic literature search was conducted and a total of 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for this study. These 15 studies yielded 60 effect sizes – (30 cognitive outcomes and 30 affective outcomes) that were analyzed on different features and outcomes.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Results showed that including emotional designs enhanced cognitive outcomes (g+ = 0.38) and affective and motivational outcomes in learning (g+ = .20). Subsequent moderator analyses were conducted for affective and motivational outcomes. Mean effect sizes were moderated by participant characteristics, methodological and contextual features of the studies. The results have significant theoretical contributions, providing empirical support for Moreno’s Cognitive Affective Theory of Learning with Media (Moreno, 2006) and the emotions-as-facilitator-of-learning hypothesis (Um et al., 2012). Practically, it appears that the use of emotional designs is particularly beneficial for students in grades K-12.

How Arab English language learners understand, perform, and evaluate written paraphrasing

Primary Author: Intissar Yahia

Faculty Sponsor: Joy Egbert

Primary College/Unit: College of Education

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

A body of research exists that discusses how English language learners (ELLs) perform paraphrasing tasks and how their failure to paraphrase effectively and cite well leads to committing plagiarism unintentionally. However, there is no research that looks particularly at how Arab English language learners understand, perform, and evaluate written paraphrasing in order to figure out their challenges in paraphrasing and the reasons that might lead to committing unintentional plagiarism. To begin to fill this gap, a case study was conducted at an intensive English program at a university in the northwest United States. Five Omani ELLs at a high-intermediate level of English proficiency participated in a case study. Data were gathered through a background questionnaire, participant task documents, and semi-structured interviews, and it was initially analyzed using Keck’s (2006) paraphrasing categories. Findings indicate that Arab-speaking ELLs understand and perform paraphrasing in ways that can cause their paraphrasing to be evaluated as unacceptable. Findings also provides evidence that limited vocabulary knowledge may be one challenge in paraphrasing, with lack of awareness of paraphrasing strategies another. In addition, the study found that current definitions and evaluations of paraphrasing are insufficient to characterize how students paraphrase and what they need to learn about paraphrasing.

The impacts of economic inefficiencies on carbon dioxide emissions

Primary Author: Kiana Yektansani

Faculty Sponsor: Ana Espinola-Arredondo

Primary College/Unit: Agricultural, Human and Natural Resource Sciences

Category: Agricultural & Natural Resource Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

I study how inefficiencies in labor productivity (output produced by each worker) affect carbon dioxide worldwide. Global CO2 emissions have been increasing by 2.9% over the last decade. Human activities are responsible for most of the global warming observed during the past half century. It is thus, important to study the determinants of CO2 emissions at a global scale to develop cost-effective solutions to diminish human impacts on global warming.

METHOD

I develop a theoretical model showing that for a fixed value of GDP per capita (a measure of production in a country), as employment increases, productivity must fall. Lower productivity is associated with lower levels of production factors (human capital and physical capital per worker, and state of technology). I hypothesize that with fixed GDP per capita, in countries with lower productivity, CO2 emissions are higher. Data on all variables are adopted form the World Bank. This study examines 33 OECD countries by employing annual data from 1991 to 2014.

RESULTS

The results suggest that inefficiencies in the labor force productivity increases pollution. This has important policy implications when tax or subsidy instruments have implementational issues. That is, investing in R&D for improved technology and physical capital as well expanding human capital can be more effective than some tax/subsidy policies. Moreover, improvements in labor productivity is the only source of economic growth. This can be an effective alternative for the famous dilemma of spending resources for protecting the environment versus devoting them to economic growth.

Enhanced cycling performance of rechargeable lithium–oxygen batteries via the formation and decomposition of lithium hydroxide using high-performance metal-organic-framework-based catalysts

Primary Author: Xiahui Zhang

Faculty Sponsor: Min-Kyu Song

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Engineering & Environmental Science

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Lithium–oxygen (Li–O2) batteries have received much attention for next-generation energy storage devices due to their high specific energy of ~3500 Wh/kg. However, Li–O2 batteries still face several challenges including low energy efficiency and poor cycle life, which are mainly caused by the low stability of electrolytes and cathodes towards aggressive discharge product (e.g., lithium peroxide). In this study, we report metal-organic-framework-based catalysts as cathode materials for Li–O2 batteries to be operated in humid oxygen where less-reactive lithium hydroxide (LiOH) was formed as discharge product compared to lithium peroxide (Li2O2), leading to improved rechargeability and cycle life.

METHOD

Manganese-based metal–organic framework (Mn-MOF-74) was grown on carbon nanotube (CNT) to form the hybrid catalyst (Mn-MOF-74/CNT hybrid) via a facile additive-mediated synthesis, which was used as cathode material. A series of controlled experiments and thermodynamic analysis were conducted to investigate the formation mechanism of LiOH. Mass spectrometry and acid-based titration were carried out to study the rechargeability of LiOH and Li2O2.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

Due to the formation of LiOH by Mn-MOF-74/CNT hybrid catalyst, Mn-MOF-74/CNTs-based cathode exhibits less side reactions (i.e., better rechargeability) and much-enhanced cycling performance in humid oxygen than those of conventional carbon cathodes in both dry and humid oxygen where Li2O2 was formed as discharge product. Moreover, the formation pathway of LiOH is a chemically-catalytic process via a chemical conversion of Li2O2 occurring at Mn2+/Mn3+ metal centers in Mn-MOF-74/CNT hybrid, instead of an electrocatalytic process via a direct four-electron reduction of oxygen.

Towards an interdependently oriented porosity of the mind: implications from a framework of madness in a Northern Thai village

Primary Author: Xinyi Zhao

Faculty Sponsor: Julia Cassaniti

Primary College/Unit: Arts and Sciences

Category: Physical & Social Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

PRINCIPAL TOPIC

Within anthropology there has been cross-cultural evidence for the nature of the mind being porous (that mind is not bounded and can be permeable) as well as the interdependent construal of self (that the concept of self includes how one relates to other people). This paper relates to anthropological work on understanding the relations between the two and hypothesizes that this porosity is not random but rather oriented through social interdependence.

METHOD

I conducted semi-structured interviews and surveys in a village in Sanpatong, Thailand as well as intensive participant observation of daily life, family events, and religious rituals. Questions I asked focused on what is mental health and illness, what are the etiology, and what are the indicators of health and madness from villagers’ view. Data shows that villagers have a particular way of conceptualizing mental health and madness based on how one reacts and responds to social surroundings.

RESULTS/IMPLICATIONS

From the framework of madness, I observed that Thai villagers construct the idea of the mind as porous but not random. The direction of this porosity depends heavily on how one responds to social surroundings. Thus, building on previous theories, I argue that this porosity is interdependently oriented. This will influence how we understand the nature of mind, the conceptualization of self, and how cultivation of a cultural self is intertwined with how the mind is perceived. It also adds to our current knowledge of human psychological diversity.

Development of a rural secondary school in an integration of cultural identity and transformative learning

Primary Author: Feiran Zou

Faculty Sponsor: Minyoung Cerruti

Primary College/Unit: Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Category: Arts & Education Sciences

Campus: Pullman

Abstract:

The Potlatch Junior and Senior High School in Idaho, built in 1968, has been experiencing an inability to adapt to rapidly changing social and technological trends as well as student learning styles – a major challenge of schools in rural areas. This project was to design a modern rural school building, which inherits the history of the town, fosters the 21st century learning, and is adaptable to the future learning community.

Using a mixed methods approach, we seek to understand the nature of contemporary learning theories through a review of literature; to assess quantitatively (i.e., case study) the effect of the learning theories on school design; to identify behavioral patterns of students and teachers through observations; and to identify the needs of the client and the end users through interviews and a survey. The data were analyzed using a content analysis and a statistical analysis.

The literature review and case studies demonstrated five key features for supporting effective learning and teaching such as accessibility, flexibility, optimal balance of technology use, aesthetically pleasing interiors, and active learning spaces inside and outside of the classroom. In addition, the survey revealed two unique community needs including a community beneficiary space and an embodiment of the community spirit. In response to the findings, our design focused on three design concepts of identity, longevity, and exploration through the use of natural color palette found in indigenous plants of Potlatch; durable and sustainable design strategies; and various design features (a multifunctional courtyard, engaging hallways, flexible classrooms.)